PMIP Publications

Last Millennium

  • Jungclaus, J. H., and Coauthors, The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6- Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4005–4033, 2017,
  • Schmidt, G. A., and Coauthors, 2012: Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1). Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1850191, doi:10.5194/ gmd-5-185-2012.
  • Otto-Bliesner, B.L., E.C. Brady, J. Fasullo, A. Jahn, L. Landrum, S. Stevenson, N. Rosenbloom, A. Mai, G. Strand. Climate Variability and Change since 850 C.E. : An Ensemble Approach with the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 735-754 (May 2016 issue) [ pdf ]
  • Truax, O. J., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Brady, E. C., Stevens, C. L., Wilson, G. S., & Riesselman, C. R. (2022). Drivers of last millennium Antarctic climate evolution in an ensemble of Community Earth System Model simulations. Geosciences, 12, 299. doi:10.3390/geosciences12080299.
  • Stevenson, S., B. Otto-Bliesner, J. Fasullo, and E. Brady, 2016: “El Nino Like” Hydroclimate responses to Last Millennium volcanic eruptions, J. Climate, 29, DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-15_0239.1.
  • Landrum, L., B. L. Otto-Bliesner, E. R. Wahl, A. Conley, P. J. Lawrence, N. Rosenbloom, H. Teng, Last Millennium Climate and its Variability in CCSM4, Journal of Climate, 26, 1085-1111.

Mid-Holocene and Last Interglacial

  • Otto-Bliesner, B.L. et al., 2017: The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 2: Two interglacials, Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Holocene and Last Interglacial simulations. Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 3979-4003, .
  • Otto-Bliesner, B.L., E.C. Brady et al., 2020: A comparison of the CMIP6 midHolocene and lig127k simulations in CESM2. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 35, e2020PA003957. .
  • Otto-Bliesner, B. L., N. Rosenbloom, E. J. Stone, N. McKay, D. Lunt, E. C. Brady, and J. T. Overpeck, 2013: How warm was the last interglacial? New model-data comparisons. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 371, 20130097, 10.1098.
  • Otto-Bliesner, B. L., E. C. Brady, G. Clauzet, R. Tomas, S. Levis, Z. Kothavala, 2006: Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene Climate in CCSM3, J. Climate, 19, 2526-2544.
  • Joussaume, S. and CoAuthors, Monsoon changes for 6000 years ago: Results of 18 simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), Geophys. Res. Letters, 26(7), 859-862,
  • Qin, B, SP Harrison, JE Kutzbach, Evaluation of modelled regional water balance using lake status data: a comparison of 6 ka simulations with the NCAR CCM, Quaternary Science Reviews, 17, 535-548, 1998.
  • Prentice, IP, SP Harrison, D Jolly, J Guiot,The climate and biomes of Europe at 6000 yr BP. comparison of model simulations and pollen-based reconstructions, Quaternary Science Reviews, 17,(6),659-668, DOI:, 1998.
  • SP Harrison, D Jolly, F Laarif, A Abe-Ouchi, B Dong, K Herterich, C Hewitt, S Joussaume, JE Kutzbach, J Mitchell, N De Noblet, P Valdes, Intercomparison of simulated global vegetation distributions in response to 6 kyr BP orbital forcing, J. Climate, 11, 2721-2742,;2, 1998.

Last Glacial Maximum (LGM or lgm)

  • Kageyama, M., Albani, S., Braconnot, P., Harrison, S. P., Hopcroft, P. O., Ivanovic, R. F., Lambert, F., Marti, O., Peltier, W. R., Peterschmitt, J.-Y., Roche, D. M., Tarasov, L., Zhang, X., Brady, E. C., Haywood, A. M., LeGrande, A. N., Lunt, D. J., Mahowald, N. M., Mikolajewicz, U., Nisancioglu, K. H., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Renssen, H., Tomas, R. A., Zhang, Q., Abe-Ouchi, A., Bartlein, P. J., Cao, J., Li, Q., Lohmann, G., Ohgaito, R., Shi, X., Volodin, E., Yoshida, K., Zhang, X., and Zheng, W., The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experiments, gmd-2017-18, Special Issue: Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 4 (PMIP4) (CP/GMD inter-journal SI), Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https://doi:10.5194/gmd-10-4035-2017.
  • Zhu, J., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Garcia, R., Brady, E. C., Mills, M., Kinnison, D., & Lamarque, J.-F. (2022). Small impact of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry on the surface temperature of the Last Glacial Maximum in CESM2(WACCM6ma). Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2022GL099875.
  • Kageyama, M., Harrison, S. P., Kapsch, M.-L., Lofverstrom, M., Lora, J. M., Mikolajewicz, U., Sherriff-Tadano, S., Vadsaria, T., Abe-Ouchi, A., Bouttes, N., Chandan, D., Gregoire, L. J., Ivanovic, R. F., Izumi, K., LeGrande, A. N., Lhardy, F., Lohmann, G., Morozova, P. A., Ohgaito, R., Paul, A., Peltier, W. R., Poulsen, C. J., Quiquet, A., Roche, D. M., Shi, X., Tierney, J. E., Valdes, P. J., Volodin, E., and Zhu, J.: The PMIP4 Last Glacial Maximum experiments: preliminary results and comparison with the PMIP3 simulations, Clim. Past, 17, 1065–1089,, 2021.
  • Tierney, J.E., Zhu, J., King, J. et al. Glacial cooling and climate sensitivity revisited. Nature 584, 569–573 (2020).
  • Brady, E. C., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Kay, J. E., & Rosenbloom, N. (2013). Sensitivity to glacial forcing in the CCSM4. Journal Of Climate, 26, 1901-1925.
  • Braconnot, P., S.P Harrison, M. Kageyama, P. J Bartlein, V. Masson-Delmotte, A. Abe-Ouchi, B.Otto-Bliesner, Y. Zhao, Evaluation of climate models using palaeoclimatic data, Nature Clim. Change, 2, 417-424, 2012, DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1456.
  • Wainer, I, M. Goes, L. N. Murphy, and E. Brady,(2012) Changes in the intermediate water formation rates in the global ocean for the Last Glacial Maximum, mid-Holocene and pre-industrial climates, Paleoceanography, 27, PA3101, doi:10.1029/2012PA002290.
  • Brady, E.C., and B.L. Otto-Bliesner, 2011: The role of meltwater-induced subsurface ocean warming in regulating the Atlantic Meridional Overturning in glacial climate simulations. Climate Dynamics, 37, 1517-1532.
  • Otto-Bliesner, B.L., and E.C. Brady, 2010: The sensitivity of the climate response to the magnitude and location of freshwater forcing: last glacial maximum experiments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 56-73.
  • Otto-Bliesner, B.L., R. Schneider, E.C. Brady, M. Kucero, A. Abe-Ouchi, P. Braconnot, M. Crucifix, C. Hewitt, M. Kageyama, O. Marti, A. Paul, A. Rosell-Mele, S.L. Weber, M. Weinelt, and Y. Yu, 2009: A Comparison of PMIP2 Model Simulations and the MARGO Proxy Reconstruction for Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures at Last Glacial Maximum. Climate Dynamics, 32, 799-815.
  • Rojas, M., P. Moreno, M. Kageyama, M. Crucifix, C. Hewitt, A. Abe-Ouchi, R. Ohgaito, E. C. Brady, P. Hope, 2009: The Southern Westerlies during the last glacial maximum in PMIP2 simulations, Climate Dynamics, 32, 525-548, 10.1007/s00382-008-0421-7.
  • Otto-Bliesner, B. L., and E. C. Brady, 2008: PMIP2 Climate Model-Proxy Data Intercomparisons for LGM, PAGES Newsletter, 16, pp18-20.
  • Clauzet, G., I. Wainer, A. Lazar, E. Brady, B Otto-Bliesner: A Numerical Study of the South Atlantic circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum, 2007: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 253, 509-528.
  • Otto-Bliesner B. L., C. D. Hewitt, T. M. Marchitto, E. Brady, A. Abe-Ouchi, M. Crucifix, S. Murakami, S. L. Weber, 2007: Last Glacial Maximum ocean thermohaline circulation: PMIP2 model intercomparisons and data constraints, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L12706, doi:10.1029/2007GL029475.
  • Braconnot, P., Otto-Bliesner, B., Harrison, S., Joussaume, S., Peterchmitt, J.-Y., Abe-Ouchi, A., Crucifix, M., Driesschaert, E., Fichefet, Th., Hewitt, C. D., Kageyama, M., Kitoh, A., Laîné, A., Loutre, M.-F., Marti, O., Merkel, U., Ramstein, G., Valdes, P., Weber, S. L., Yu, Y., and Zhao, Y.: Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum – Part 1: experiments and large-scale features, Clim. Past, 3, 261–277,, 2007.
  • Braconnot, P., Otto-Bliesner, B., Harrison, S., Joussaume, S., Peterchmitt, J.-Y., Abe-Ouchi, A., Crucifix, M., Driesschaert, E., Fichefet, Th., Hewitt, C. D., Kageyama, M., Kitoh, A., Loutre, M.-F., Marti, O., Merkel, U., Ramstein, G., Valdes, P., Weber, L., Yu, Y., and Zhao, Y.: Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum – Part 2: feedbacks with emphasis on the location of the ITCZ and mid- and high latitudes heat budget, Clim. Past, 3, 279–296,, 2007.
  • Otto-Bliesner, B.L., E.C. Brady, G. Clauzet, R. Tomas, S. Levis, and Z. Kothavala, 2006: Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene climate in CCSM3. J. Climate, 19, 2526-2544.
  • Wainer I., G. Clauzet, M.-P. Ledru, E. Brady, B. Otto-Bliesner, 2005: Last Glacial Maximum in South America: Paleoclimate proxies and model results, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L08702, doi:10.1029/2004GL021244.
  • Kutzbach, J., R Gallimore, S Harrison, P Behling, R Selin, Laarif, F, Climate and biome simulations for the past 21,000 years, Quaternary Science Reviews, 1998,


  • Haywood, A. M., Dowsett, H. J., Dolan, A. M., Rowley, D., Abe-Ouchi, A., Otto-Bliesner, B., Chandler, M. A., Hunter, S. J., Lunt, D. J., Pound, M., and Salzmann, U.: The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: scientific objectives and experimental design, Clim. Past, 12, 663–675,, 2016.
  • Dowsett, H., Dolan, A., Rowley, D., Moucha, R., Forte, A. M., Mitrovica, J. X., Pound, M., Salzmann, U., Robinson, M., Chandler, M., Foley, K., and Haywood, A.: The PRISM4 (mid-Piacenzian) paleoenvironmental reconstruction, Clim. Past, 12, 1519–1538,, 2016.
  • Feng, R., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Brady, E.C., & Rosenbloom, N. (2020). Increased climate response and Earth system sensitivity from CCSM4 to CESM2 in mid-Pliocene simulations. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12, e2019MS002033.
  • Feng, R., Bhattacharya, T., Otto-Bliesner, B.L., Brady, E.C., Haywood, A.M., Tindall, J.C., Hunter, S.J., Abe-Ouchi, A., Chan, W.L., Kageyama, M. and Contoux, C., 2022. Past terrestrial hydroclimate sensitivity controlled by Earth system feedbacks. Nature communications, 13(1), p.1306.
  • Otto-Bliesner, B.L., A. Jahn, R. Feng, E.C. Brady, A. Hu, and M. Lofverstrom, 2017: Amplified North Atlantic warming in the late Pliocene by changes in Arctic gateways. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, 957-964.
  • Feng, R., B.L. Otto-Bliesner, T.L. Fletcher, C.R. Tabor, A.P. Ballantyne, and E.C. Brady, 2017: Amplified Late Pliocene terrestrial warmth in northern high latitudes from greater radiative forcing and closed Arctic Ocean gateways. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 466, 129-138.
  • Feng, R., B. Otto-Bliesner, Y. Xu, E. Brady, T. Fletcher, and A. Ballantyne, 2019: Contributions of aerosol-cloud interactions to mid-Piacenzian seasonally sea ice-free Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters.
  • Rosenbloom, N.A., B. L. Otto-Bliesner, E. C. Brady, and P. J. Lawrence, 2013: Simulating the mid-Pliocene Warm Period with the CCSM4 model. Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 549-561.