Addor, N. and E. M. Fischer, 2015: The influence of natural variability and interpolation errors on bias characterization in RCM simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120.

Aegerter, C., J. Wang, C. Ge, S. Irmak, R. Oglesby, B. Wardlow, H. S. Yang, J. S. You, and M. Shulski, 2017: Mesoscale Modeling of the Meteorological Impacts of Irrigation during the 2012 Central Plains Drought. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56, 1259-1283.

Akkermans, T., D. Lauwaet, M. Demuzere, G. Vogel, Y. Nouvellon, J. Ardo, B. Caquet, A. De Grandcourt, L. Merbold, W. Kutsch, and N. Van Lipzig, 2012: Validation and comparison of two soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models for tropical Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 117.

Akkermans, T., W. Thiery, and N. P. M. Van Lipzig, 2014: The Regional Climate Impact of a Realistic Future Deforestation Scenario in the Congo Basin. Journal of Climate, 27, 2714-2734.

Alexeev, V. A., D. J. Nicolsky, V. E. Romanovsky, and D. M. Lawrence, 2007: An evaluation of deep soil configurations in the CLM3 for improved representation of permafrost. Geophysical Research Letters, 34.

Alo, C. A. and G. L. Wang, 2008: Hydrological impact of the potential future vegetation response to climate changes projected by 8 GCMs. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 113.

Anantharaj, V. G., U. S. Nair, P. Lawrence, T. N. Chase, S. Christopher, and T. Jones, 2010: Comparison of satellite-derived TOA shortwave clear-sky fluxes to estimates from GCM simulations constrained by satellite observations of land surface characteristics. International Journal of Climatology, 30, 2088-2104.

Anderson, R. G., M. H. Lo, S. Swenson, J. S. Famiglietti, Q. Tang, T. H. Skaggs, Y. H. Lin, and R. J. Wu, 2015: Using satellite-based estimates of evapotranspiration and groundwater changes to determine anthropogenic water fluxes in land surface models. Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 3021-3031.

Andrews, T. D. and B. S. Felzer, 2015: Very-Heavy Precipitation in the Greater New York City Region and Widespread Drought Alleviation Tied to Western US Agriculture. Plos One, 10.

Arsenault, K. R., P. R. Houser, G. J. M. De Lannoy, and P. A. Dirmeyer, 2013: Impacts of snow cover fraction data assimilation on modeled energy and moisture budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 118, 7489-7504.

Ashfaqur Rahman, M., M. Almazroui, M. Nazrul Islam, E. O'Brien, and A. E. Yousef, 2017: The role of land surface fluxes in Saudi-KAU AGCM: Temperature climatology over the Arabian Peninsula for the period 1981–2010. Atmospheric Research, 200, 139-152.

Ashworth, K., O. Wild, and C. N. Hewitt, 2010: Sensitivity of isoprene emissions estimated using MEGAN to the time resolution of input climate data. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 1193-1201.

Avise, J., J. Chen, B. Lamb, C. Wiedinmyer, A. Guenther, E. Salathe, and C. Mass, 2009: Attribution of projected changes in summertime US ozone and PM2.5 concentrations to global changes. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 1111-1124.

Baatz, R., H. J. H. Franssen, X. J. Han, T. Hoar, H. R. Bogena, and H. Vereecken, 2017: Evaluation of a cosmic-ray neutron sensor network for improved land surface model prediction. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 21, 2509-2530.

Baer, F., H. J. Wang, J. J. Tribbia, and A. Fournier, 2006: Climate modeling with spectral elements. Monthly Weather Review, 134, 3610-3624.

Bai, P., X. M. Liu, T. T. Yang, K. Liang, and C. M. Liu, 2016: Evaluation of streamflow simulation results of land surface models in GLDAS on the Tibetan plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 12180-12197.

Baigorria, G. A., J. W. Jones, and J. J. O'Brien, 2008: Potential predictability of crop yield using an ensemble climate forecast by a regional circulation model. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148, 1353-1361.

Bala, G., N. Devaraju, R. K. Chaturvedi, K. Caldeira, and R. Nemani, 2013: Nitrogen deposition: how important is it for global terrestrial carbon uptake? Biogeosciences, 10, 7147-7160.

Bao, J., Z. S. Hou, M. Y. Huang, and Y. Liu, 2015: On Approaches to Analyze the Sensitivity of Simulated Hydrologic Fluxes to Model Parameters in the Community Land Model. Water, 7, 6810-6826.

Barlage, M. and X. B. Zeng, 2004: The effects of observed fractional vegetation cover on the land surface climatology of the community land model. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5, 823-830.

——, 2004: Impact of observed vegetation root distribution on seasonal global simulations of land surface processes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 109.

Beighley, R., K. Eggert, C. J. Wilson, J. C. Rowland, and H. Lee, 2015: A hydrologic routing model suitable for climate-scale simulations of arctic rivers: application to the Mackenzie River Basin. Hydrological Processes, 29, 2751-2768.

Bennington, V., M. Notaro, and K. D. Holman, 2014: Improving Climate Sensitivity of Deep Lakes within a Regional Climate Model and Its Impact on Simulated Climate. Journal of Climate, 27, 2886-2911.

Bi, H. Y., J. W. Ma, W. J. Zheng, and J. Y. Zeng, 2016: Comparison of soil moisture in GLDAS model simulations and in situ observations over the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 2658-2678.

Bilionis, I., B. A. Drewniak, and E. M. Constantinescu, 2015: Crop physiology calibration in the CLM. Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 1071-1083.

Blackmon, M., B. Boville, F. Bryan, R. Dickinson, P. Gent, J. Kiehl, R. Moritz, D. Randall, J. Shukla, S. Solomon, G. Bonan, S. Doney, I. Fung, J. Hack, E. Hunke, J. Hurrell, J. Kutzbach, J. Meehl, B. Otto-Bliesner, R. Saravanan, E. K. Schneider, L. Sloan, M. Spall, K. Taylor, J. Tribbia, and W. Washington, 2001: The Community Climate System Model. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82, 2357-2376.

Boisserie, M., D. W. Shin, T. E. Larow, and S. Cocke, 2006: Evaluation of soil moisture in the Florida State University climate model - National Center for Atmospheric Research community land model (FSU-CLM) using two reanalyses (R2 and ERA40) and in situ observations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111.

Boisserie, M. and S. Cocke, 2012: Development of a soil moisture analysis for subseasonal forecasting: Soil moisture validation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117.

Bonan, G. B., K. W. Oleson, M. Vertenstein, S. Levis, X. B. Zeng, Y. J. Dai, R. E. Dickinson, and Z. L. Yang, 2002: The land surface climatology of the community land model coupled to the NCAR community climate model. Journal of Climate, 15, 3123-3149.

Bonan, G. B., S. Levis, L. Kergoat, and K. W. Oleson, 2002: Landscapes as patches of plant functional types: An integrating concept for climate and ecosystem models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16.

Bonan, G. B., S. Levis, S. Sitch, M. Vertenstein, and K. W. Oleson, 2003: A dynamic global vegetation model for use with climate models: concepts and description of simulated vegetation dynamics. Global Change Biology, 9, 1543-1566.

Bonan, G. B. and S. Levis, 2006: Evaluating aspects of the community land and atmosphere models (CLM3 and CAM3) using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model. Journal of Climate, 19, 2290-2301.

——, 2010: Quantifying carbon-nitrogen feedbacks in the Community Land Model (CLM4). Geophysical Research Letters, 37.

Bonan, G. B., P. J. Lawrence, K. W. Oleson, S. Levis, M. Jung, M. Reichstein, D. M. Lawrence, and S. C. Swenson, 2011: Improving canopy processes in the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) using global flux fields empirically inferred from FLUXNET data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116.

Bonan, G. B., K. W. Oleson, R. A. Fisher, G. Lasslop, and M. Reichstein, 2012: Reconciling leaf physiological traits and canopy flux data: Use of the TRY and FLUXNET databases in the Community Land Model version 4. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 117.

Bonan, G. B., M. D. Hartman, W. J. Parton, and W. R. Wieder, 2013: Evaluating litter decomposition in earth system models with long-term litterbag experiments: an example using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Global Change Biology, 19, 957-974.

Bonan, G. B., M. Williams, R. A. Fisher, and K. W. Oleson, 2014: Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 2193-2222.

Bond-Lamberty, B., K. Calvin, A. D. Jones, J. Mao, P. Patel, X. Y. Shi, A. Thomson, P. Thornton, and Y. Zhou, 2014: On linking an Earth system model to the equilibrium carbon representation of an economically optimizing land use model. Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 2545-2555.

Bonfils, C. J. W., T. J. Phillips, D. M. Lawrence, P. Cameron-Smith, W. J. Riley, and Z. M. Subin, 2012: On the influence of shrub height and expansion on northern high latitude climate. Environmental Research Letters, 7.

Bosilovich, M. G. and J. D. Chern, 2006: Simulation of water sources and precipitation recycling for the MacKenzie, Mississippi, and Amazon River basins. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7, 312-329.

Bosilovich, M. G., J. D. Radakovich, A. da Silva, R. Todling, and F. Verter, 2007: Skin temperature analysis and bias correction in a coupled land-atmosphere data assimilation system. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 85A, 205-228.

Broxton, P. D., X. B. Zeng, W. Scheftic, and P. A. Troch, 2014: A MODIS-Based Global 1-km Maximum Green Vegetation Fraction Dataset. Journal of applied meteorology and climatology, 53, 1996-2004.

Brunke, M. A., P. Broxton, J. Pelletier, D. Gochis, P. Hazenberg, D. M. Lawrence, L. R. Leung, G.-Y. Niu, P. A. Troch, and X. Zeng, 2016: Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5). Journal of Climate, 29, 3441-3461.

Brunke, M. A., P. Broxton, J. Pelletier, D. Gochis, P. Hazenberg, D. M. Lawrence, L. R. Leung, G. Y. Niu, P. A. Troch, and X. B. Zeng, 2016: Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5). Journal of Climate, 29, 3441-3461.

Bucior-Kwaczynska, A., 2018: The Possibility of Applying the EM-PCA Procedure to Lake Water. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 27, 19-30.

Buzan, J. R., K. Oleson, and M. Huber, 2015: Implementation and comparison of a suite of heat stress metrics within the Community Land Model version 4.5. Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 151-170.

Cai, X. T., Z. L. Yang, Y. L. Xia, M. Y. Huang, H. L. Wei, L. R. Leung, and M. B. Ek, 2014: Assessment of simulated water balance from Noah, Noah-MP, CLM, and VIC over CONUS using the NLDAS test bed. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119, 13751-13770.

Cao, L., G. Bala, K. Caldeira, R. Nemani, and G. Ban-Weiss, 2009: Climate response to physiological forcing of carbon dioxide simulated by the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1) and Community Land Model (CLM3.0). Geophysical Research Letters, 36.

——, 2010: Importance of carbon dioxide physiological forcing to future climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 9513-9518.

Castillo, C. K. G. and K. R. Gurney, 2012: Exploring Surface Biophysical-Climate Sensitivity to Tropical Deforestation Rates Using a GCM: A Feasibility Study. Earth Interactions, 16.

Castillo, C. K. G., S. Levis, and P. Thornton, 2012: Evaluation of the New CNDV Option of the Community Land Model: Effects of Dynamic Vegetation and Interactive Nitrogen on CLM4 Means and Variability. Journal of Climate, 25, 3702-3714.

Castillo, C. K. G. and K. R. Gurney, 2013: A Sensitivity Analysis of Surface Biophysical, Carbon, and Climate Impacts of Tropical Deforestation Rates in CCSM4-CNDV. Journal of Climate, 26, 805-821.

Chen, L., Z. G. Ma, and X. G. Fan, 2012: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO LAND SURFACE SCHEMES IN WRF MODEL OVER EASTERN CHINA. Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 18, 445-456.

Chen, G. S., M. Notaro, Z. Y. Liu, and Y. Q. Liu, 2012: Simulated Local and Remote Biophysical Effects of Afforestation over the Southeast United States in Boreal Summer. Journal of Climate, 25, 4511-4522.

Chen, J., B. Z. Chen, T. A. Black, J. L. Innes, G. Y. Wang, G. Kiely, T. Hirano, and G. Wohlfahrt, 2013: Comparison of terrestrial evapotranspiration estimates using the mass transfer and Penman-Monteith equations in land surface models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 118, 1715-1731.

Chen, F., M. Barlage, M. Tewari, R. Rasmussen, J. M. Jin, D. Lettenmaier, B. Livneh, C. Y. Lin, G. Miguez-Macho, G. Y. Niu, L. J. Wen, and Z. L. Yang, 2014: Modeling seasonal snowpack evolution in the complex terrain and forested Colorado Headwaters region: A model intercomparison study. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119, 13795-13819.

Chen, M., T. J. Griffis, J. Baker, J. D. Wood, and K. Xiao, 2015: Simulating crop phenology in the Community Land Model and its impact on energy and carbon fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 120, 310-325.

Chen, M., E. K. Melaas, J. M. Gray, M. A. Friedl, and A. D. Richardson, 2016: A new seasonal-deciduous spring phenology submodel in the Community Land Model 4.5: impacts on carbon and water cycling under future climate scenarios. Global Change Biology, 22, 3675-3688.

Chen, L. and P. A. Dirmeyer, 2017: Impacts of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change on Afternoon Precipitation over North America. Journal of Climate, 30, 2121-2140.

Chen, L., P. A. Dirmeyer, Z. C. Guo, and N. M. Schultz, 2018: Pairing FLUXNET sites to validate model representations of land-use/land-cover change. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 22, 111-125.

Cheng, S. J., J. P. Huang, F. Ji, and L. Lin, 2017: Uncertainties of soil moisture in historical simulations and future projections. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 122, 2239-2253.

Chikamoto, Y., A. Timmermann, S. Stevenson, P. DiNezio, and S. Langford, 2015: Decadal predictability of soil water, vegetation, and wildfire frequency over North America. Climate Dynamics, 45, 2213-2235.

Cocke, S., M. Boisserie, and D. W. Shin, 2013: A coupled soil moisture initialization scheme for the FSU/COAPS climate model. Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering, 21, 420-437.

Collins, W. D., C. M. Bitz, M. L. Blackmon, G. B. Bonan, C. S. Bretherton, J. A. Carton, P. Chang, S. C. Doney, J. J. Hack, T. B. Henderson, J. T. Kiehl, W. G. Large, D. S. McKenna, B. D. Santer, and R. D. Smith, 2006: The Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3). Journal of Climate, 19, 2122-2143.

Collins, W. D., P. J. Rasch, B. A. Boville, J. J. Hack, J. R. McCaa, D. L. Williamson, B. P. Briegleb, C. M. Bitz, S. J. Lin, and M. H. Zhang, 2006: The formulation and atmospheric simulation of the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3). Journal of Climate, 19, 2144-2161.

Cook, B. I., G. B. Bonan, and S. Levis, 2006: Soil moisture feedbacks to precipitation in southern Africa. Journal of Climate, 19, 4198-4206.

Cook, B. I., G. B. Bonan, S. Levis, and H. E. Epstein, 2008: The thermoinsulation effect of snow cover within a climate model. Climate Dynamics, 31, 107-124.

——, 2008: Rapid vegetation responses and feedbacks amplify climate model response to snow cover changes. Climate Dynamics, 30, 391-406.

Dagon, K. and D. P. Schrag, 2016: Exploring the Effects of Solar Radiation Management on Water Cycling in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Model*. Journal of Climate, 29, 2635-2650.

Dahlin, K. M., R. A. Fisher, and P. J. Lawrence, 2015: Environmental drivers of drought deciduous phenology in the Community Land Model. Biogeosciences, 12, 5061-5074.

Dai, Y. J., X. B. Zeng, R. E. Dickinson, I. Baker, G. B. Bonan, M. G. Bosilovich, A. S. Denning, P. A. Dirmeyer, P. R. Houser, G. Y. Niu, K. W. Oleson, C. A. Schlosser, and Z. L. Yang, 2003: The Common Land Model. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 84, 1013-+.

Dai, A., T. T. Qian, K. E. Trenberth, and J. D. Milliman, 2009: Changes in Continental Freshwater Discharge from 1948 to 2004. Journal of Climate, 22, 2773-2792.

Das, S. K., S. K. Deb, C. M. Kishtawal, P. C. Joshi, and P. K. Pal, 2011: Climate Change Studies Using Coupled Model: Land Surface Perspective. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 39, 323-336.

Davin, E. L., R. Stockli, E. B. Jaeger, S. Levis, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2011: COSMO-CLM(2): a new version of the COSMO-CLM model coupled to the Community Land Model. Climate Dynamics, 37, 1889-1907.

Davin, E. L. and S. I. Seneviratne, 2012: Role of land surface processes and diffuse/direct radiation partitioning in simulating the European climate. Biogeosciences, 9, 1695-1707.

Davin, E. L., S. I. Seneviratne, P. Ciais, A. Olioso, and T. Wang, 2014: Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 9757-9761.

Davin, E. L., E. Maisonnave, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2016: Is land surface processes representation a possible weak link in current Regional Climate Models? Environmental Research Letters, 11.

De Lannoy, G. J. M., P. R. Houser, V. R. N. Pauwels, and N. E. C. Verhoest, 2006: Assessment of model uncertainty for soil moisture through ensemble verification. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111.

De Lannoy, G. J. M., R. H. Reichle, P. R. Houser, V. R. N. Pauwels, and N. E. C. Verhoest, 2007: Correcting for forecast bias in soil moisture assimilation with the ensemble Kalman filter. Water Resources Research, 43.

De Lannoy, G. J. M., P. R. Houser, N. E. C. Verhoest, and V. R. N. Pauwels, 2009: Adaptive Soil Moisture Profile Filtering for Horizontal Information Propagation in the Independent Column-Based CLM2.0. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 10, 766-779.

De Lannoy, G. J. M., J. Ufford, A. K. Sahoo, P. Dirmeyer, and P. R. Houser, 2011: Observed and simulated water and energy budget components at SCAN sites in the lower Mississippi Basin. Hydrological Processes, 25, 634-649.

Decker, M. and X. B. Zeng, 2006: An empirical formulation of soil ice fraction based on in situ observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 33.

Demuzere, M., K. Oleson, A. M. Coutts, G. Pigeon, and N. P. M. van Lipzig, 2013: Simulating the surface energy balance over two contrasting urban environments using the Community Land Model Urban. International Journal of Climatology, 33, 3182-3205.

Demuzere, M., A. M. Coutts, M. Göhler, A. M. Broadbent, H. Wouters, N. P. M. van Lipzig, and L. Gebert, 2014: The implementation of biofiltration systems, rainwater tanks and urban irrigation in a single-layer urban canopy model. Urban Climate, 10, Part 1, 148-170.

Deng, B., S. D. Liu, W. Xiao, W. Wang, J. M. Jin, and X. H. Lee, 2013: Evaluation of the CLM4 Lake Model at a Large and Shallow Freshwater Lake. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14, 636-649.

Deng, J. C. and H. M. Xu, 2015: Atmospheric responses to idealized urban land surface forcing in eastern China during the boreal spring. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120.

Deng, J. C., H. M. Xu, and L. Y. Zhang, 2016: Nonlinear effects of anthropogenic aerosol and urban land surface forcing on spring climate in eastern China. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 4581-4599.

Deng, J. C. and H. M. Xu, 2016: Nonlinear effect on the East Asian summer monsoon due to two coexisting anthropogenic forcing factors in eastern China: an AGCM study. Climate Dynamics, 46, 3767-3784.

Dennis, J. M., R. Jacob, M. Vertenstein, T. Craig, and R. Loy, 2007: Toward an ultra-high resolution community climate system model for the BlueGene platform. SciDac 2007: Scientific Discovery Through Advanced Computing, U247-U251.

Di Vittorio, A. V., L. P. Chini, B. Bond-Lamberty, J. Mao, X. Shi, J. Truesdale, A. Craig, K. Calvin, A. Jones, W. D. Collins, J. Edmonds, G. C. Hurtt, P. Thornton, and A. Thomson, 2014: From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations. Biogeosciences, 11, 6435-6450.

Dickinson, R. E., G. L. Wang, X. B. Zeng, and Q. R. Zeng, 2003: How does the partitioning of evapotranspiration and runoff between different processes affect the variability and predictability of soil moisture and precipitation? Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 20, 475-478.

Dickinson, R. E., K. W. Oleson, G. Bonan, F. Hoffman, P. Thornton, M. Vertenstein, Z. L. Yang, and X. B. Zeng, 2006: The Community Land Model and its climate statistics as a component of the Community Climate System Model. Journal of Climate, 19, 2302-2324.

Dirmeyer, P. A., S. Kumar, M. J. Fennessy, E. L. Altshuler, T. DelSole, Z. Guo, B. A. Cash, and D. Straus, 2013: Model Estimates of Land-Driven Predictability in a Changing Climate from CCSM4. Journal of Climate, 26, 8495-8512.

Diro, G. T., S. A. Rauscher, F. Giorgi, and A. M. Tompkins, 2012: Sensitivity of seasonal climate and diurnal precipitation over Central America to land and sea surface schemes in RegCM4. Climate Research, 52, 31-48.

Doney, S. C., K. Lindsay, I. Fung, and J. John, 2006: Natural variability in a stable, 1000-yr global coupled climate-carbon cycle simulation. Journal of Climate, 19, 3033-3054.

Doughty, C. E., C. B. Field, and A. M. S. McMillan, 2011: Can crop albedo be increased through the modification of leaf trichomes, and could this cool regional climate? Climatic Change, 104, 379-387.

Doughty, C. E., S. R. Loarie, and C. B. Field, 2012: Theoretical Impact of Changing Albedo on Precipitation at the Southernmost Boundary of the ITCZ in South America. Earth Interactions, 16.

Drake, J. B., P. W. Jones, and G. R. Carr, 2005: Overview of the software design of the Community Climate System Model. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 19, 177-186.

Drewniak, B., J. Song, J. Prell, V. R. Kotamarthi, and R. Jacob, 2013: Modeling agriculture in the Community Land Model. Geoscientific Model Development, 6, 495-515.

Drewniak, B. A., U. Mishra, J. Song, J. Prell, and V. R. Kotamarthi, 2015: Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets. Biogeosciences, 12, 2119-2129.

Du, C. L., W. L. Wu, X. D. Liu, and W. Gao, 2006: Simulation of soil moisture and its variability in East Asia - art. no. 62982F. Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability III, W. Gao and S. L. Ustin, Eds., F2982-F2982.

Du, E. H., A. Di Vittorio, and W. D. Collins, 2016: Evaluation of hydrologic components of community land model 4 and bias identification. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 48, 5-16.

Duarte, H. F., B. M. Raczka, D. M. Ricciuto, J. C. Lin, C. D. Koven, P. E. Thornton, D. R. Bowling, C. T. Lai, K. J. Bible, and J. R. Ehleringer, 2017: Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements. Biogeosciences, 14, 4315-4340.

Ebead, B., M. Ahmed, Z. Niu, and N. Huang, 2017: Quantifying the anthropogenic impact on groundwater resources of North China using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data and land surface models. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 11.

Edburg, S. L., J. A. Hicke, D. M. Lawrence, and P. E. Thornton, 2011: Simulating coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics following mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116.

Fan, Y., O. Roupsard, M. Bernoux, G. Le Maire, O. Panferov, M. M. Kotowska, and A. Knohl, 2015: A sub-canopy structure for simulating oil palm in the Community Land Model (CLM-Palm): phenology, allocation and yield. Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 3785-3800.

Fang, Y. L., C. X. Liu, M. Y. Huang, H. Y. Li, and L. R. Leung, 2014: Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 6, 1049-1064.

Fang, Y., C. Liu, and L. R. Leung, 2015: Accelerating the spin-up of the coupled carbon and nitrogen cycle model in CLM4. Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 781-789.

Fang, X. W., S. Q. Luo, S. H. Lyu, B. L. Chen, Y. Zhang, D. Ma, and Y. Chang, 2016: A Simulation and Validation of CLM during Freeze-Thaw on the Tibetan Plateau. Advances in Meteorology.

Fares, S., R. Schnitzhofer, X. Y. Jiang, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, and F. Loreto, 2013: Observations of Diurnal to Weekly Variations of Monoterpene-Dominated Fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds from Mediterranean Forests: Implications for Regional Modeling. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 11073-11082.

Fasullo, J. T. and K. E. Trenberth, 2008: The annual cycle of the energy budget. Part I: Global mean and land-ocean exchanges. Journal of Climate, 21, 2297-2312.

——, 2008: The annual cycle of the energy budget. Part II: Meridional structures and poleward transports. Journal of Climate, 21, 2313-2325.

Feddema, J., K. Oleson, G. Bonan, L. Mearns, W. Washington, G. Meehl, and D. Nychka, 2005: A comparison of a GCM response to historical anthropogenic land cover change and model sensitivity to uncertainty in present-day land cover representations. Climate Dynamics, 25, 581-609.

Feng, X., A. Sahoo, K. Arsenault, P. Houser, Y. Luo, and T. J. Troy, 2008: The Impact of Snow Model Complexity at Three CLPX Sites. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 9, 1464-1481.

Fisher, R. A., S. Muszala, M. Verteinstein, P. Lawrence, C. Xu, N. G. McDowell, R. G. Knox, C. Koven, J. Holm, B. M. Rogers, A. Spessa, D. Lawrence, and G. Bonan, 2015: Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes, CLM4.5(ED). Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 3593-3619.

Fitch, A. C., 2015: Climate Impacts of Large-Scale Wind Farms as Parameterized in a Global Climate Model. Journal of Climate, 28, 6160-6180.

Foereid, B., D. S. Ward, N. Mahowald, E. Paterson, and J. Lehmann, 2014: The sensitivity of carbon turnover in the Community Land Model to modified assumptions about soil processes. Earth System Dynamics, 5, 211-221.

Fu, C. S., G. L. Wang, M. L. Goulden, R. L. Scott, K. Bible, and Z. G. Cardon, 2016: Combined measurement and modeling of the hydrological impact of hydraulic redistribution using CLM4.5 at eight AmeriFlux sites. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 20, 2001-2018.

Gao, X. J., Y. Shi, Z. Y. Han, M. L. Wang, J. Wu, D. F. Zhang, Y. Xu, and F. Giorgi, 2017: Performance of RegCM4 over major river basins in China. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 34, 441-455.

Gao, X. and F. Giorgi, 2017: Use of the RegCM System over East Asia: Review and Perspectives. Engineering, 3, 766-772.

Gebler, S., H. J. H. Franssen, S. J. Kollet, W. Qu, and H. Vereecken, 2017: High resolution modelling of soil moisture patterns with TerrSysMP: A comparison with sensor network data. Journal of Hydrology, 547, 309-331.

Gent, P. R., S. G. Yeager, R. B. Neale, S. Levis, and D. A. Bailey, 2010: Improvements in a half degree atmosphere/land version of the CCSM. Climate Dynamics, 34, 819-833.

Ghatak, D., A. Frei, G. Gong, J. Stroeve, and D. Robinson, 2011: On the emergence of an Arctic amplification signal in terrestrial Arctic snow extent. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115.

Giorgi, F., E. Coppola, F. Solmon, L. Mariotti, M. B. Sylla, X. Bi, N. Elguindi, G. T. Diro, V. Nair, G. Giuliani, U. U. Turuncoglu, S. Cozzini, I. Guttler, T. A. O'Brien, A. B. Tawfik, A. Shalaby, A. S. Zakey, A. L. Steiner, F. Stordal, L. C. Sloan, and C. Brankovic, 2012: RegCM4: model description and preliminary tests over multiple CORDEX domains. Climate Research, 52, 7-29.

Gohler, M., J. Mai, and M. Cuntz, 2013: Use of eigendecomposition in a parameter sensitivity analysis of the Community Land Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 118, 904-921.

Goldenson, N., S. J. Doherty, C. M. Bitz, M. M. Holland, B. Light, and A. J. Conley, 2012: Arctic climate response to forcing from light-absorbing particles in snow and sea ice in CESM. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 7903-7920.

Gonsamo, A., J. M. Chen, and D. Lombardozzi, 2016: Global vegetation productivity response to climatic oscillations during the satellite era. Global Change Biology, 22, 3414-3426.

Gopalakrishnan, R., G. Bala, M. Jayaraman, L. Cao, R. Nemani, and N. H. Ravindranath, 2011: Sensitivity of terrestrial water and energy budgets to CO(2)-physiological forcing: an investigation using an offline land model. Environmental Research Letters, 6.

Gotangco Castillo, C. K., S. Levis, and P. Thornton, 2012: Evaluation of the New CNDV Option of the Community Land Model: Effects of Dynamic Vegetation and Interactive Nitrogen on CLM4 Means and Variability*. Journal of Climate, 25, 3702-3714.

Gotangco Castillo, C. K. and K. R. Gurney, 2012: A Sensitivity Analysis of Surface Biophysical, Carbon, and Climate Impacts of Tropical Deforestation Rates in CCSM4-CNDV*. Journal of Climate, 26, 805-821.

Goteti, G., J. S. Famiglietti, and K. Asante, 2008: A Catchment-Based Hydrologic and Routing Modeling System with explicit river channels. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113.

Gottlicher, D., J. Albert, T. Nauss, and J. Bendix, 2011: Optical properties of selected plants from a tropical mountain ecosystem - Traits for plant functional types to parametrize a land surface model. Ecological Modelling, 222, 493-502.

Griffiths, N. A., P. J. Hanson, D. M. Ricciuto, C. M. Iversen, A. M. Jensen, A. Malhotra, K. J. McFarlane, R. J. Norby, K. Sargsyan, S. D. Sebestyen, X. Y. Shi, A. P. Walker, E. J. Ward, J. M. Warren, and D. J. Weston, 2017: Temporal and Spatial Variation in Peatland Carbon Cycling and Implications for Interpreting Responses of an Ecosystem-Scale Warming Experiment. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 81, 1668-1688.

Guenther, A. B., X. Jiang, C. L. Heald, T. Sakulyanontvittaya, T. Duhl, L. K. Emmons, and X. Wang, 2012: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions. Geoscientific Model Development, 5, 1471-1492.

Gulden, L. E. and Z. L. Yang, 2006: Development of species-based, regional emission capacities for simulation of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in land-surface models: An example from Texas, USA. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 1464-1479.

Gulden, L. E., Z. L. Yang, and G. Y. Niu, 2007: Interannual variation in biogenic emissions on a regional scale. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 112.

Gulden, L. E., E. Rosero, Z. L. Yang, M. Rodell, C. S. Jackson, G. Y. Niu, P. J. F. Yeh, and J. Famiglietti, 2007: Improving land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer model better than a deeper soil profile? Geophysical Research Letters, 34.

Gulden, L. E., Z. L. Yang, and G. Y. Niu, 2008: Sensitivity of biogenic emissions simulated by a land-surface model to land-cover representations. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 4185-4197.

Guo, Z. C., P. A. Dirmeyer, R. D. Koster, G. Bonan, E. Chan, P. Cox, C. T. Gordon, S. Kanae, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. H. Lu, S. Malyshev, B. McAvaney, J. L. McGregor, K. Mitchell, D. Mocko, T. Oki, K. W. Oleson, A. Pitman, Y. C. Sud, C. M. Taylor, D. Verseghy, R. Vasic, Y. K. Xue, and T. Yamada, 2006: GLACE: The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part II: Analysis. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7, 611-625.

Guo, D. L., H. J. Wang, and D. Li, 2012: A projection of permafrost degradation on the Tibetan Plateau during the 21st century. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117.

Guo, D. L. and H. J. Wang, 2013: Simulation of permafrost and seasonally frozen ground conditions on the Tibetan Plateau, 1981-2010. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 118, 5216-5230.

——, 2014: Simulated change in the near-surface soil freeze/thaw cycle on the Tibetan Plateau from 1981 to 2010. Chinese Science Bulletin, 59, 2439-2448.

Guo, D. L. and J. Q. Sun, 2015: Permafrost Thaw and Associated Settlement Hazard Onset Timing over the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6, 347-358.

Hack, J. J., J. M. Caron, S. G. Yeager, K. W. Oleson, M. M. Holland, J. E. Truesdale, and P. J. Rasch, 2006: Simulation of the global hydrological cycle in the CCSM Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3): Mean features. Journal of Climate, 19, 2199-2221.

Hack, J. J., J. M. Caron, G. Danabasoglu, K. W. Oleson, C. Bitz, and J. E. Truesdale, 2006: CCSM-CAM3 climate simulation sensitivity to changes in horizontal resolution. Journal of Climate, 19, 2267-2289.

Halder, S., P. A. Dirmeyer, and S. K. Saha, 2015: Sensitivity of the mean and variability of Indian summer monsoon to land surface schemes in RegCM4: Understanding coupled land-atmosphere feedbacks. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120, 9437-9458.

Han, X., X. Li, H. J. H. Franssen, H. Vereecken, and C. Montzka, 2012: Spatial horizontal correlation characteristics in the land data assimilation of soil moisture. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 1349-1363.

Han, X., H.-J. Hendricks Franssen, X. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Montzka, and H. Vereecken, 2013: Joint Assimilation of Surface Temperature and L-Band Microwave Brightness Temperature in Land Data Assimilation. Vadose Zone Journal, 12.

Han, X. J., H. J. H. Franssen, C. Montzka, and H. Vereecken, 2014: Soil moisture and soil properties estimation in the Community Land Model with synthetic brightness temperature observations. Water Resources Research, 50, 6081-6105.

Han, X., H. J. H. Franssen, R. Rosolem, R. Jin, X. Li, and H. Vereecken, 2015: Correction of systematic model forcing bias of CLM using assimilation of cosmic-ray Neutrons and land surface temperature: a study in the Heihe Catchment, China. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19, 615-629.

Han, X. J., H. J. H. Franssen, M. A. J. Bello, R. Rosolem, H. Bogena, F. M. Alzamora, A. Chanzy, and H. Vereecken, 2016: Simultaneous soil moisture and properties estimation for a drip irrigated field by assimilating cosmic-ray neutron intensity. Journal of Hydrology, 539, 611-624.

Hararuk, O., D. Obrist, and Y. Luo, 2013: Modelling the sensitivity of soil mercury storage to climate-induced changes in soil carbon pools. Biogeosciences, 10, 2393-2407.

Hararuk, O., J. Y. Xia, and Y. Q. Luo, 2014: Evaluation and improvement of a global land model against soil carbon data using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 119, 403-417.

Harding, K. J., T. E. Twine, and Y. Q. Lu, 2015: Effects of Dynamic Crop Growth on the Simulated Precipitation Response to Irrigation. Earth Interactions, 19.

Hasler, N., D. Werth, and R. Avissar, 2009: Effects of Tropical Deforestation on Global Hydroclimate: A Multimodel Ensemble Analysis. Journal of Climate, 22, 1124-1141.

Hauser, M., R. Orth, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2017: Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions with prescribed soil moisture experiments: an assessment with the Community Earth System Model (version 1.2). Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 1665-1677.

He, Y. and C. H. Q. Ding, 2005: Coupling multicomponent models with MPH on distributed memory computer architectures. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 19, 329-340.

He, F., S. J. Vavrus, J. E. Kutzbach, W. F. Ruddiman, J. O. Kaplan, and K. M. Krumhardt, 2014: Simulating global and local surface temperature changes due to Holocene anthropogenic land cover change. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 623-631.

He, H. S., D. L. Wang, Y. Xu, and J. D. Tan, 2016: Data synthesis in the Community Land Model for ecosystem simulation. Journal of Computational Science, 13, 83-95.

Heald, C. L., D. K. Henze, L. W. Horowitz, J. Feddema, J. F. Lamarque, A. Guenther, P. G. Hess, F. Vitt, J. H. Seinfeld, A. H. Goldstein, and I. Fung, 2008: Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113.

Heald, C. L., M. J. Wilkinson, R. K. Monson, C. A. Alo, G. L. Wang, and A. Guenther, 2009: Response of isoprene emission to ambient CO2 changes and implications for global budgets. Global Change Biology, 15, 1127-1140.

Herold, N., Y. You, R. D. Muller, and M. Seton, 2009: Climate model sensitivity to changes in Miocene paleotopography. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 56, 1049-1059.

Herold, N., R. D. Muller, and M. Seton, 2011: Comparing early to middle Miocene terrestrial climate simulations with geological data. Geosphere, 6, 952-961.

Higgins, M. E. and J. J. Cassano, 2012: Northern Alaskan land surface response to reduced Arctic sea ice extent. Climate Dynamics, 38, 2099-2113.

Ho, C. H., T. W. Park, S. Y. Jun, M. H. Lee, C. E. Park, J. Kim, S. J. Lee, Y. D. Hong, C. K. Song, and J. B. Lee, 2011: A projection of extreme climate events in the 21(st) century over east Asia using the community climate system model 3. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 47, 329-344.

Hoffman, F. M., M. Vertenstein, H. Kitabata, and J. B. White, 2005: Vectorizing the Community Land Model. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 19, 247-260.

Hoffman, F., I. Fung, J. Randerson, P. Thornton, J. Foley, C. Covey, J. John, S. Levis, W. Mac Post, M. Vertenstein, R. Stockli, S. Running, F. A. Heinsch, D. Erickson, and J. Drake, 2006: Terrestrial biogeochemistry in the community climate system model (CCSM). Scidac 2006: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing, W. M. Tang, Ed., 363-369.

Hoffman, F. M., C. C. Covey, I. Y. Fung, J. T. Randerson, P. E. Thornton, Y. H. Lee, N. A. Rosenbloom, R. C. Stockli, S. W. Running, D. E. Bernholdt, and D. N. Williams, 2007: Results from the carbon-land model intercomparison project (C-LAMP) and availability of the data on the earth system grid (ESG). Scidac 2007: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing.

Holland, M. M., J. Finnis, and M. C. Serreze, 2006: Simulated Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Journal of Climate, 19, 6221-6242.

Holm, J. A., J. Q. Chambers, W. D. Collins, and N. Higuchi, 2014: Forest response to increased disturbance in the central Amazon and comparison to western Amazonian forests. Biogeosciences, 11, 5773-5794.

Hoover, D. L. and B. M. Rogers, 2016: Not all droughts are created equal: the impacts of interannual drought pattern and magnitude on grassland carbon cycling. Global Change Biology, 22, 1809-1820.

Hoppe, C. M., H. Elbern, and J. Schwinger, 2014: A variational data assimilation system for soil-atmosphere flux estimates for the Community Land Model (CLM3.5). Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 1025-1036.

Hou, Z. S., M. Y. Huang, L. R. Leung, G. Lin, and D. M. Ricciuto, 2012: Sensitivity of surface flux simulations to hydrologic parameters based on an uncertainty quantification framework applied to the Community Land Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117.

Houborg, R., A. Cescatti, M. Migliavacca, and W. P. Kustas, 2013: Satellite retrievals of leaf chlorophyll and photosynthetic capacity for improved modeling of GPP. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 177, 10-23.

Houborg, R., M. F. McCabe, A. Cescatti, and A. A. Gitelson, 2015: Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 43, 160-176.

Hu, A. X., G. A. Meehl, W. Q. Han, J. J. Yin, B. Y. Wu, and M. Kimoto, 2013: Influence of Continental Ice Retreat on Future Global Climate. Journal of Climate, 26, 3087-3111.

Hua, W. J., H. S. Chen, S. G. Zhu, S. L. Sun, M. Yu, and L. M. Zhou, 2013: Hotspots of the sensitivity of the land surface hydrological cycle to climate change. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58, 3682-3688.

Huang, M. Y., Z. S. Hou, L. R. Leung, Y. H. Ke, Y. Liu, Z. F. Fang, and Y. Sun, 2013: Uncertainty Analysis of Runoff Simulations and Parameter Identifiability in the Community Land Model: Evidence from MOPEX Basins. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14, 1754-1772.

Huang, M. Y., J. Ray, Z. S. Hou, H. Y. Ren, Y. Liu, and L. Swiler, 2016: On the applicability of surrogate-based Markov chain Monte Carlo-Bayesian inversion to the Community Land Model: Case studies at flux tower sites. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 7548-7563.

Huang, X. Y. and P. A. Ullrich, 2016: Irrigation impacts on California's climate with the variable-resolution CESM. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8, 1151-1163.

Hudiburg, T. W., B. E. Law, and P. E. Thornton, 2013: Evaluation and improvement of the Community Land Model (CLM4) in Oregon forests. Biogeosciences, 10, 453-470.

Infanti, J. M. and B. P. Kirtman, 2016: Prediction and predictability of land and atmosphere initialized CCSM4 climate forecasts over North America. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 12690-12701.

Jeong, J. H., C. H. Ho, D. L. Chen, and T. W. Park, 2008: Land Surface Initialization Using an Offline CLM3 Simulation with the GSWP-2 Forcing Dataset and Its Impact on CAM3 Simulations of the Boreal Summer Climate. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 9, 1231-1248.

Jeong, S. J., C. H. Ho, T. W. Park, J. Kim, and S. Levis, 2011: Impact of vegetation feedback on the temperature and its diurnal range over the Northern Hemisphere during summer in a 2 x CO(2) climate. Climate Dynamics, 37, 821-833.

Jiang, Z. H., F. Huo, H. Y. Ma, J. Song, and A. G. Dai, 2017: Impact of Chinese Urbanization and Aerosol Emissions on the East Asian Summer Monsoon. Journal of Climate, 30, 1019-1039.

Jiao, C., M. G. Flanner, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, N. De Luca, T. Diehl, S. J. Ghan, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevag, D. Koch, X. Liu, G. W. Mann, J. E. Penner, G. Pitari, M. Schulz, O. Seland, R. B. Skeie, S. D. Steenrod, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, T. van Noije, Y. Yun, and K. Zhang, 2014: An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 2399-2417.

Jiao, Y., H. M. Lei, D. W. Yang, M. Y. Huang, D. F. Liu, and X. Yuan, 2017: Impact of vegetation dynamics on hydrological processes in a semi-arid basin by using a land surface-hydrology coupled model. Journal of Hydrology, 551, 116-131.

Jin, M. L. and S. L. Liang, 2006: An improved land surface emissivity parameter for land surface models using global remote sensing observations. Journal of Climate, 19, 2867-2881.

Jin, M. L., J. M. Shepherd, and C. Peters-Lidard, 2007: Development of a parameterization for simulating the urban temperature hazard using satellite observations in climate model. Natural Hazards, 43, 257-271.

Jin, J. M. and N. L. Miller, 2011: Regional simulations to quantify land use change and irrigation impacts on hydroclimate in the California Central Valley. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 104, 429-442.

Jin, J. and N. L. Miller, 2011: Improvement of snowpack simulations in a regional climate model. Hydrological Processes, 25, 2202-2210.

Jin, J. and L. Wen, 2012: Evaluation of snowmelt simulation in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10110.

Kang, S., E. S. Im, and J. B. Ahn, 2014: The impact of two land-surface schemes on the characteristics of summer precipitation over East Asia from the RegCM4 simulations. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 3986-3997.

Kang, S., S. W. Running, J. S. Kimball, D. B. Fagre, A. Michaelis, D. L. Peterson, J. E. Halofsky, and S. Hong, 2014: Effects of spatial and temporal climatic variability on terrestrial carbon and water fluxes in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Environmental Modelling & Software, 51, 228-239.

Kay, J. E., C. Deser, A. Phillips, A. Mai, C. Hannay, G. Strand, J. M. Arblaster, S. C. Bates, G. Danabasoglu, J. Edwards, M. Holland, P. Kushner, J. F. Lamarque, D. Lawrence, K. Lindsay, A. Middleton, E. Munoz, R. Neale, K. Oleson, L. Polvani, and M. Vertenstein, 2015: THE COMMUNITY EARTH SYSTEM MODEL (CESM) LARGE ENSEMBLE PROJECT A Community Resource for Studying Climate Change in the Presence of Internal Climate Variability. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96, 1333-1349.

Ke, Y., L. R. Leung, M. Huang, A. M. Coleman, H. Li, and M. S. Wigmosta, 2012: Development of high resolution land surface parameters for the Community Land Model. Geoscientific Model Development, 5, 1341-1362.

Ke, Y., L. R. Leung, M. Huang, and H. Li, 2013: Enhancing the representation of subgrid land surface characteristics in land surface models. Geoscientific Model Development, 6, 1609-1622.

Keller, K. M., S. Lienert, A. Bozbiyik, T. F. Stocker, O. V. Churakova, D. C. Frank, S. Klesse, C. D. Koven, M. Leuenberger, W. J. Riley, M. Saurer, R. Siegwolf, R. B. Weigt, and F. Joos, 2017: 20th century changes in carbon isotopes and water-use efficiency: tree-ring-based evaluation of the CLM4.5 and LPX-Bern models. Biogeosciences, 14, 2641-2673.

Keppel-Aleks, G., J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, B. B. Stephens, J. Keith Moore, S. C. Doney, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, F. M. Hoffman, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, P. O. Wennberg, and S. C. Wofsy, 2013: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. Journal of Climate, 26, 4447-4475.

Khabarov, N., A. Krasovskii, M. Obersteiner, R. Swart, A. Dosio, J. San-Miguel-Ayanz, T. Durrant, A. Camia, and M. Migliavacca, 2016: Forest fires and adaptation options in Europe. Regional Environmental Change, 16, 21-30.

Kiehl, J. T. and P. R. Gent, 2004: The Community Climate System Model, version 2. Journal of Climate, 17, 3666-3682.

Kim, Y. and G. L. Wang, 2005: Modeling seasonal vegetation variation and its validation against Moderate Resolution Imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations over North America. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 110.

——, 2007: Impact of initial soil moisture anomalies on subsequent precipitation over North America in the coupled land-atmosphere model CAM3-CLM3. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8, 513-533.

——, 2007: Impact of vegetation feedback on the response of precipitation to antecedent soil moisture anomalies over North America. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8, 534-550.

Kim, E. S., H. I. Choi, and S. Kim, 2011: Implementation of a Topographically Controlled Runoff Scheme for Land Surface Parameterizations in Regional Climate Models. Ksce Journal of Civil Engineering, 15, 1309-1318.

Kim, Y. and G. L. Wang, 2012: Soil moisture-vegetation-precipitation feedback over North America: Its sensitivity to soil moisture climatology. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117.

Kim, J., B. P. Mohanty, and Y. Shin, 2015: Effective soil moisture estimate and its uncertainty using multimodel simulation based on Bayesian Model Averaging. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120, 8023-8042.

Kim, J. and B. P. Mohanty, 2016: Influence of lateral subsurface flow and connectivity on soil water storage in land surface modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 704-721.

——, 2017: A physically based hydrological connectivity algorithm for describing spatial patterns of soil moisture in the unsaturated zone. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 122, 2096-2114.

Kloster, S., N. M. Mahowald, J. T. Randerson, P. E. Thornton, F. M. Hoffman, S. Levis, P. J. Lawrence, J. J. Feddema, K. W. Oleson, and D. M. Lawrence, 2010: Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model. Biogeosciences, 7, 1877-1902.

Koster, R. D., P. A. Dirmeyer, Z. C. Guo, G. Bonan, E. Chan, P. Cox, C. T. Gordon, S. Kanae, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. H. Lu, S. Malyshev, B. McAvaney, K. Mitchell, D. Mocko, T. Oki, K. Oleson, A. Pitman, Y. C. Sud, C. M. Taylor, D. Verseghy, R. Vasic, Y. K. Xue, and T. Yamada, 2004: Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation. Science, 305, 1138-1140.

Koster, R. D., Z. C. Guo, P. A. Dirmeyer, G. Bonan, E. Chan, P. Cox, H. Davies, C. T. Gordon, S. Kanae, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. H. Lu, S. Malyshev, B. McAvaney, K. Mitchell, D. Mocko, T. Oki, K. W. Oleson, A. Pitman, Y. C. Sud, C. M. Taylor, D. Verseghy, R. Vasic, Y. K. Xue, and T. Yamada, 2006: GLACE: The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part I: Overview. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7, 590-610.

Koven, C. D., W. J. Riley, Z. M. Subin, J. Y. Tang, M. S. Torn, W. D. Collins, G. B. Bonan, D. M. Lawrence, and S. C. Swenson, 2013: The effect of vertically resolved soil biogeochemistry and alternate soil C and N models on C dynamics of CLM4. Biogeosciences, 10, 7109-7131.

Kumar, S. V., R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, W. T. Crow, and C. D. Peters-Lidard, 2009: Role of Subsurface Physics in the Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture Observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 10, 1534-1547.

Kumar, S., V. Merwade, W. Lee, L. Zhao, and C. Song, 2010: Hydroclimatological impact of century-long drainage in midwestern United States: CCSM sensitivity experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115.

Kumar, S. and V. Merwade, 2011: Evaluation of NARR and CLM3.5 outputs for surface water and energy budgets in the Mississippi River Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 116.

Kumar, S., P. A. Dirmeyer, D. M. Lawrence, T. DelSole, E. L. Altshuler, B. A. Cash, M. J. Fennessy, Z. C. Guo, J. L. Kinter, and D. M. Straus, 2014: Effects of realistic land surface initializations on subseasonal to seasonal soil moisture and temperature predictability in North America and in changing climate simulated by CCSM4. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119, 13250-13270.

Kumar, R., V. Mishra, J. Buzan, R. Kumar, D. Shindell, and M. Huber, 2017: Dominant control of agriculture and irrigation on urban heat island in India. Scientific Reports, 7.

Kvalevag, M. M., G. Myhre, G. Bonan, and S. Levis, 2010: Anthropogenic land cover changes in a GCM with surface albedo changes based on MODIS data. International Journal of Climatology, 30, 2105-2117.

Kvalevag, M. M. and G. Myhre, 2013: The effect of carbon-nitrogen coupling on the reduced land carbon sink caused by tropospheric ozone. Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 3227-3231.

Kwon, Y., A. M. Toure, Z. L. Yang, M. Rodell, and G. Picard, 2015: Error Characterization of Coupled Land Surface-Radiative Transfer Models for Snow Microwave Radiance Assimilation. Ieee Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 53, 5247-5268.

Kwon, Y., Z. L. Yang, L. Zhao, T. J. Hoar, A. M. Toure, and M. Rodell, 2016: Estimating Snow Water Storage in North America Using CLM4, DART, and Snow Radiance Data Assimilation. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17, 2853-2874.

Kwon, Y., Z. L. Yang, T. J. Hoar, and A. M. Toure, 2017: Improving the Radiance Assimilation Performance in Estimating Snow Water Storage across Snow and Land-Cover Types in North America. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18, 651-668.

Lai, X., J. Wen, S. X. Cen, X. Huang, H. Tian, and X. K. Shi, 2016: Spatial and Temporal Soil Moisture Variations over China from Simulations and Observations. Advances in Meteorology.

Launois, T., P. Peylin, S. Belviso, and B. Poulter, 2015: A new model of the global biogeochemical cycle of carbonyl sulfide - Part 2: Use of carbonyl sulfide to constrain gross primary productivity in current vegetation models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 9285-9312.

Lawrence, D. M. and A. G. Slater, 2005: A projection of severe near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. Geophysical Research Letters, 32.

——, 2006: Reply to comment by C. R. Burn and F. E. Nelson on "A projection of near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century". Geophysical Research Letters, 33.

Lawrence, D. M., P. E. Thornton, K. W. Oleson, and G. B. Bonan, 2007: The partitioning of evapotranspiration into transpiration, soil evaporation, and canopy evaporation in a GCM: Impacts on land-atmosphere interaction. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8, 862-880.

Lawrence, P. J. and T. N. Chase, 2007: Representing a new MODIS consistent land surface in the Community Land Model (CLM 3.0). Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 112.

Lawrence, D. M., A. G. Slater, R. A. Tomas, M. M. Holland, and C. Deser, 2008: Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss. Geophysical Research Letters, 35.

Lawrence, D. M., A. G. Slater, V. E. Romanovsky, and D. J. Nicolsky, 2008: Sensitivity of a model projection of near-surface permafrost degradation to soil column depth and representation of soil organic matter. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 113.

Lawrence, D. M. and A. G. Slater, 2008: Incorporating organic soil into a global climate model. Climate Dynamics, 30, 145-160.

Lawrence, P. J. and T. N. Chase, 2009: Climate Impacts of Making Evapotranspiration in the Community Land Model (CLM3) Consistent with the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB). Journal of Hydrometeorology, 10, 374-394.

——, 2010: Investigating the climate impacts of global land cover change in the community climate system model. International Journal of Climatology, 30, 2066-2087.

Lawrence, D. M. and A. G. Slater, 2010: The contribution of snow condition trends to future ground climate. Climate Dynamics, 34, 969-981.

Lawrence, D. M. and S. C. Swenson, 2011: Permafrost response to increasing Arctic shrub abundance depends on the relative influence of shrubs on local soil cooling versus large-scale climate warming. Environmental Research Letters, 6.

Lawrence, D. M., A. G. Slater, and S. C. Swenson, 2012: Simulation of Present-Day and Future Permafrost and Seasonally Frozen Ground Conditions in CCSM4. Journal of Climate, 25, 2207-2225.

Lawrence, D. M., K. W. Oleson, M. G. Flanner, C. G. Fletcher, P. J. Lawrence, S. Levis, S. C. Swenson, and G. B. Bonan, 2012: The CCSM4 Land Simulation, 1850-2005: Assessment of Surface Climate and New Capabilities. Journal of Climate, 25, 2240-2260.

Lawrence, P. J., J. J. Feddema, G. B. Bonan, G. A. Meehl, B. C. O'Neill, K. W. Oleson, S. Levis, D. M. Lawrence, E. Kluzek, K. Lindsay, and P. E. Thornton, 2012: Simulating the Biogeochemical and Biogeophysical Impacts of Transient Land Cover Change and Wood Harvest in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) from 1850 to 2100. Journal of Climate, 25, 3071-3095.

Lawrence, D. M., C. D. Koven, S. C. Swenson, W. J. Riley, and A. G. Slater, 2015: Permafrost thaw and resulting soil moisture changes regulate projected high-latitude CO2 and CH4 emissions. Environmental Research Letters, 10.

Lee, K. H. and E. N. Anagnostou, 2004: Investigation of the nonlinear hydrologic response to precipitation forcing in physically based land surface modeling. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 30, 706-716.

Lee, J. E., R. S. Oliveira, T. E. Dawson, and I. Fung, 2005: Root functioning modifies seasonal climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 17576-17581.

Lee, K. and N. S. Oh, 2006: Investigating the spatial scaling effect of the non-linear hydrological response to precipitation forcing in a physically based land surface model. Water Sa, 32, 145-154.

Lee, E., W. J. Sacks, T. N. Chase, and J. A. Foley, 2011: Simulated impacts of irrigation on the atmospheric circulation over Asia. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 116.

Lee, Y. H., H. J. Lim, K. Ichii, and Y. N. Li, 2013: Evaluation of the Community Land Model 3.5 with carbon and nitrogen cycles (CLM3.5CN) at a Tibetan grassland site. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 49, 561-570.

Lee, E., B. S. Felzer, and Z. Kothavala, 2013: Effects of nitrogen limitation on hydrological processes in CLM4-CN. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 5, 741-754.

Lee, H., S. C. Swenson, A. G. Slater, and D. M. Lawrence, 2014: Effects of excess ground ice on projections of permafrost in a warming climate. Environmental Research Letters, 9.

Lee, W. L., Y. Gu, K. N. Liou, L. R. Leung, and H. H. Hsu, 2015: A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 5405-5413.

Lee, J. E., J. A. Berry, C. S. Van der Tol, X. Yang, L. Guanter, A. Damm, I. Baker, and C. Frankenberg, 2015: Simulations of chlorophyll fluorescence incorporated into the Community Land Model version 4. Global Change Biology, 21, 3469-3477.

Lehner, F., F. Joos, C. C. Raible, J. Mignot, A. Born, K. M. Keller, and T. F. Stocker, 2015: Climate and carbon cycle dynamics in a CESM simulation from 850 to 2100 CE. Earth System Dynamics, 6, 411-434.

Lei, H., D. Yang, and M. Huang, 2014: Impacts of climate change and vegetation dynamics on runoff in the mountainous region of the Haihe River basin in the past five decades. Journal of Hydrology, 511, 786-799.

Lei, H. M., M. Y. Huang, L. R. Leung, D. W. Yang, X. Y. Shi, J. F. Mao, D. J. Hayes, C. R. Schwalm, Y. X. Wei, and S. S. Liu, 2014: Sensitivity of global terrestrial gross primary production to hydrologic states simulated by the Community Land Model using two runoff parameterizations. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 6, 658-679.

Lei, H. M., D. W. Yang, H. B. Yang, Z. J. Yuan, and H. F. Lv, 2015: Simulated impacts of irrigation on evapotranspiration in a strongly exploited region: a case study of the Haihe River basin, China. Hydrological Processes, 29, 2704-2719.

Lejeune, Q., E. Davin, B. Guillod, and S. Seneviratne, 2015: Influence of Amazonian deforestation on the future evolution of regional surface fluxes, circulation, surface temperature and precipitation. Climate Dynamics, 44, 2769-2786.

Lenaerts, J. T. M., M. Vizcaino, J. Fyke, L. van Kampenhout, and M. R. van den Broeke, 2016: Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model. Climate Dynamics, 47, 1367-1381.

Leng, G. Y., M. Y. Huang, Q. H. Tang, W. J. Sacks, H. M. Lei, and L. R. Leung, 2013: Modeling the effects of irrigation on land surface fluxes and states over the conterminous United States: Sensitivity to input data and model parameters. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 118, 9789-9803.

Leng, G. Y., M. Y. Huang, Q. H. Tang, H. L. Gao, and L. R. Leung, 2014: Modeling the Effects of Groundwater-Fed Irrigation on Terrestrial Hydrology over the Conterminous United States. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 15, 957-972.

Leng, G. Y. and Q. H. Tang, 2014: Modeling the Impacts of Future Climate Change on Irrigation over China: Sensitivity to Adjusted Projections. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 15, 2085-2103.

Leng, G. Y., Q. H. Tang, M. Y. Huang, and L. Y. R. Leung, 2015: A comparative analysis of the impacts of climate change and irrigation on land surface and subsurface hydrology in the North China Plain. Regional Environmental Change, 15, 251-263.

Leng, G. Y., M. Y. Huang, Q. H. Tang, and L. R. Leung, 2015: A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface water and groundwater resources under a changing climate. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 7, 1285-1304.

Leng, G. Y., X. S. Zhang, M. Y. Huang, Q. C. Yang, R. Rafique, G. R. Asrar, and L. R. Leung, 2016: Simulating county-level crop yields in the Conterminous United States using the Community Land Model: The effects of optimizing irrigation and fertilization. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8, 1912-1931.

Levine, P. A., J. T. Randerson, S. C. Swenson, and D. M. Lawrence, 2016: Evaluating the strength of the land-atmosphere moisture feedback in Earth system models using satellite observations. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 20, 4837-4856.

Levis, S., C. Wiedinmyer, G. B. Bonan, and A. Guenther, 2003: Simulating biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in the Community Climate System Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 108.

Levis, S., G. B. Bonan, and C. Bonfils, 2004: Soil feedback drives the mid-Holocene North African monsoon northward in fully coupled CCSM2 simulations with a dynamic vegetation model. Climate Dynamics, 23, 791-802.

Levis, S. and G. B. Bonan, 2004: Simulating springtime temperature patterns in the community atmosphere model coupled to the community land model using prognostic leaf area. Journal of Climate, 17, 4531-4540.

Levis, S., G. B. Bonan, and P. J. Lawrence, 2007: Present-day springtime high-latitude surface albedo as a predictor of simulated climate sensitivity. Geophysical Research Letters, 34.

Levis, S., G. B. Bonan, E. Kluzek, P. E. Thornton, A. Jones, W. J. Sacks, and C. J. Kucharik, 2012: Interactive Crop Management in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1): Seasonal Influences on Land-Atmosphere Fluxes. Journal of Climate, 25, 4839-4859.

Levis, S., M. D. Hartman, and G. B. Bonan, 2014: The Community Land Model underestimates land-use CO2 emissions by neglecting soil disturbance from cultivation. Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 613-620.

Li, Z. and N. Molders, 2008: Interaction of impacts of doubling CO2 and changing regional land-cover on evaporation, precipitation, and runoff at global and regional scales. International Journal of Climatology, 28, 1653-1679.

Li, Z., U. S. Bhatt, and N. Molders, 2008: Impact of doubled CO2 on the interaction between the global and regional water cycles in four study regions. Climate Dynamics, 30, 255-275.

Li, M. X. and Z. G. Ma, 2010: Comparisons of Simulations of Soil Moisture Variations in the Yellow River Basin Driven by Various Atmospheric Forcing Data Sets. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 27, 1289-1302.

Li, F., X. D. Zeng, X. Song, D. X. Tian, P. Shao, and D. L. Zhang, 2011: Impact of spin-up forcing on vegetation states simulated by a dynamic global vegetation model coupled with a land surface model. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 28, 775-788.

Li, H. Y., M. Y. Huang, M. S. Wigmosta, Y. H. Ke, A. M. Coleman, L. R. Leung, A. H. Wang, and D. M. Ricciuto, 2011: Evaluating runoff simulations from the Community Land Model 4.0 using observations from flux towers and a mountainous watershed. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 116.

Li, F., X. D. Zeng, and S. Levis, 2012: A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model. Biogeosciences, 9, 2761-2780.

Li, M. X. and Z. G. Ma, 2013: Soil moisture-based study of the variability of dry-wet climate and climate zones in China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58, 531-544.

Li, H. Y., M. S. Wigmosta, H. Wu, M. Y. Huang, Y. H. Ke, A. M. Coleman, and L. R. Leung, 2013: A Physically Based Runoff Routing Model for Land Surface and Earth System Models. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14, 808-828.

Li, F., S. Levis, and D. S. Ward, 2013: Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 1: Improved global fire modeling in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Biogeosciences, 10, 2293-2314.

Li, F., B. Bond-Lamberty, and S. Levis, 2014: Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century. Biogeosciences, 11, 1345-1360.

Li, R., J. Jin, S. Y. Wang, and R. R. Gillies, 2015: Significant impacts of radiation physics in the Weather Research and Forecasting model on the precipitation and dynamics of the West African Monsoon. Climate Dynamics, 44, 1583-1594.

Li, H. Y., L. R. Leung, A. Getirana, M. Y. Huang, H. Wu, Y. B. Xu, J. L. Guo, and N. Voisin, 2015: Evaluating Global Streamflow Simulations by a Physically Based Routing Model Coupled with the Community Land Model. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 16, 948-971.

Li, Z. X., T. J. Zhou, H. S. Chen, D. H. Ni, and R. H. Zhang, 2015: Modelling the effect of soil moisture variability on summer precipitation variability over East Asia. International Journal of Climatology, 35, 879-887.

Li, Y. B., C. Y. Tam, W. R. Huang, K. K. W. Cheung, and Z. Q. Gao, 2016: Evaluating the impacts of cumulus, land surface and ocean surface schemes on summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific by RegCM4. Climate Dynamics, 46, 2487-2505.

Li, J. L. F., W. L. Lee, Y. H. Wang, M. Richardson, J. Y. Yu, E. Suhas, E. Fetzer, M. H. Lo, and Q. Yue, 2016: Assessing the radiative impacts of precipitating clouds on winter surface air temperatures and land surface properties in general circulation models using observations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 11536-11555.

Li, F., D. M. Lawrence, and B. Bond-Lamberty, 2017: Impact of fire on global land surface air temperature and energy budget for the 20th century due to changes within ecosystems. Environmental Research Letters, 12.

Li, F. and D. M. Lawrence, 2017: Role of Fire in the Global Land Water Budget during the Twentieth Century due to Changing Ecosystems. Journal of Climate, 30, 1893-1908.

Li, C. W., H. Lu, K. Yang, J. S. Wright, L. Yu, Y. Y. Chen, X. M. Huang, and S. M. Xu, 2017: Evaluation of the Common Land Model (CoLM) from the Perspective of Water and Energy Budget Simulation: Towards Inclusion in CMIP6. Atmosphere, 8.

Li, M. X., Z. G. Ma, and M. X. Lv, 2017: Variability of modeled runoff over China and its links to climate change. Climatic Change, 144, 433-445.

Liang, X. Z., M. Xu, W. Gao, K. Kunkel, J. Slusser, Y. J. Dai, Q. L. Min, P. R. Houser, M. Rodell, C. B. Schaaf, and F. Gao, 2005: Development of land surface albedo parameterization based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 110.

Liang, M. L. and Z. H. Xie, 2008: Improving the vegetation dynamic simulation in a land surface model by using a statistical-dynamic canopy interception scheme. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 25, 610-618.

Lim, Y. K., D. W. Shin, S. Cocke, S. D. Kang, and H. D. Kim, 2011: Simulation of the Indian summer monsoon using comprehensive atmosphere-land interactions, in the absence of two-way air-sea interactions. Climate Research, 46, 85-99.

Lin, B., J. P. Stackhouse, W. Sun, Y. Hu, Z. Liu, and T.-F. Fan, 2013: Is Oklahoma getting drier? Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 122, 208-213.

Lin, S., J. M. Feng, J. Wang, and Y. H. Hu, 2016: Modeling the contribution of long-term urbanization to temperature increase in three extensive urban agglomerations in China. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 1683-1697.

Lindsay, K., G. B. Bonan, S. C. Doney, F. M. Hoffman, D. M. Lawrence, M. C. Long, N. M. Mahowald, J. K. Moore, J. T. Randerson, and P. E. Thornton, 2014: Preindustrial-Control and Twentieth-Century Carbon Cycle Experiments with the Earth System Model CESM1(BGC). Journal of Climate, 27, 8981-9005.

Lipscomb, W. H., J. G. Fyke, M. Vizcaino, W. J. Sacks, J. Wolfe, M. Vertenstein, A. Craig, E. Kluzek, and D. M. Lawrence, 2013: Implementation and Initial Evaluation of the Glimmer Community Ice Sheet Model in the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Climate, 26, 7352-7371.

Liptak, J., G. Keppel-Aleks, and K. Lindsay, 2017: Drivers of multi-century trends in the atmospheric CO2 mean annual cycle in a prognostic ESM. Biogeosciences, 14, 1383-1401.

Liu, B., Z. G. Ma, J. J. Xu, and Z. N. Xiao, 2009: Comparison of pan evaporation and actual evaporation estimated by land surface model in Xinjiang from 1960 to 2005. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 19, 502-512.

Liu, Y. Y., J. P. Evans, M. F. McCabe, R. A. M. de Jeu, A. van Dijk, and H. Su, 2010: Influence of cracking clays on satellite estimated and model simulated soil moisture. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 979-990.

Liu, J. G. and Z. H. Xie, 2013: Improving simulation of soil moisture in China using a multiple meteorological forcing ensemble approach. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 3355-3369.

Liu, L., F. Solmon, R. Vautard, L. Hamaoui-Laguel, C. Z. Torma, and F. Giorgi, 2016: Ragweed pollen production and dispersion modelling within a regional climate system, calibration and application over Europe. Biogeosciences, 13, 2769-2786.

Liu, W. B., L. Wang, J. Zhou, Y. Z. Li, F. B. Sun, G. B. Fu, X. P. Li, and Y. F. Sang, 2016: A worldwide evaluation of basin-scale evapotranspiration estimates against the water balance method. Journal of Hydrology, 538, 82-95.

Liu, D. and A. K. Mishra, 2017: Performance of AMSR_E soil moisture data assimilation in CLM4.5 model for monitoring hydrologic fluxes at global scale. Journal of Hydrology, 547, 67-79.

Llopart, M., R. P. da Rocha, M. Reboita, and S. Cuadra, 2017: Sensitivity of simulated South America climate to the land surface schemes in RegCM4. Climate Dynamics, 49, 3975-3987.

Lo, M. H., P. J. F. Yeh, and J. S. Famiglietti, 2008: Constraining water table depth simulations in a land surface model using estimated baseflow. Advances in Water Resources, 31, 1552-1564.

Lo, M. H. and J. S. Famiglietti, 2010: Effect of water table dynamics on land surface hydrologic memory. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115.

Lobell, D., G. Bala, A. Mirin, T. Phillips, R. Maxwell, and D. Rotman, 2009: Regional Differences in the Influence of Irrigation on Climate. Journal of Climate, 22, 2248-2255.

Lombardozzi, D., S. Levis, G. Bonan, and J. P. Sparks, 2012: Predicting photosynthesis and transpiration responses to ozone: decoupling modeled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Biogeosciences, 9, 3113-3130.

Lombardozzi, D., G. B. Bonan, and D. W. Nychka, 2014: The emerging anthropogenic signal in land-atmosphere carbon-cycle coupling. Nature Climate Change, 4, 796-800.

Lombardozzi, D. L., G. B. Bonan, N. G. Smith, J. S. Dukes, and R. A. Fisher, 2015: Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration: A key uncertainty in the carbon cycle-climate feedback. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 8624-8631.

Lombardozzi, D., S. Levis, G. Bonan, P. G. Hess, and J. P. Sparks, 2015: The Influence of Chronic Ozone Exposure on Global Carbon and Water Cycles. Journal of Climate, 28, 292-305.

Lombardozzi, D. L., M. J. B. Zeppel, R. A. Fisher, and A. Tawfik, 2017: Representing nighttime and minimum conductance in CLM4.5: global hydrology and carbon sensitivity analysis using observational constraints. Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 321-331.

Lorenz, R., E. L. Davin, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2012: Modeling land-climate coupling in Europe: Impact of land surface representation on climate variability and extremes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117.

Lorenz, R., E. L. Davin, D. M. Lawrence, R. Stöckli, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2013: How Important is Vegetation Phenology for European Climate and Heat Waves? Journal of Climate, 26, 10077-10100.

Lu, Q. F., W. Gao, Z. Q. Gao, W. L. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Y. Du, and J. Slusser, 2006: Numerical simulation of surface heat and water fluxes in Tibet Plateau - art. no. 62981H. Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability III, W. Gao and S. L. Ustin, Eds., H2981-H2981.

Lu, Y. Q. and L. M. Kueppers, 2012: Surface energy partitioning over four dominant vegetation types across the United States in a coupled regional climate model (Weather Research and Forecasting Model 3-Community Land Model 3.5). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117.

Lu, Y. Q., J. M. Jin, and L. M. Kueppers, 2015: Crop growth and irrigation interact to influence surface fluxes in a regional climate-cropland model (WRF3.3-CLM4crop). Climate Dynamics, 45, 3347-3363.

Lu, Y. Q., I. N. Williams, J. E. Bagley, M. S. Torn, and L. M. Kueppers, 2017: Representing winter wheat in the Community Land Model (version 4.5). Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 1873-1888.

Luo, Y. Q., J. T. Randerson, G. Abramowitz, C. Bacour, E. Blyth, N. Carvalhais, P. Ciais, D. Dalmonech, J. B. Fisher, R. Fisher, P. Friedlingstein, K. Hibbard, F. Hoffman, D. Huntzinger, C. D. Jones, C. Koven, D. Lawrence, D. J. Li, M. Mahecha, S. L. Niu, R. Norby, S. L. Piao, X. Qi, P. Peylin, I. C. Prentice, W. Riley, M. Reichstein, C. Schwalm, Y. P. Wang, J. Y. Xia, S. Zaehle, and X. H. Zhou, 2012: A framework for benchmarking land models. Biogeosciences, 9, 3857-3874.

Luo, S. Q., X. W. Fang, S. H. Lyu, Y. Zhang, and B. L. Chen, 2017: Improving CLM4.5 Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Exchange during Freeze-Thaw Processes on the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Meteorological Research, 31, 916-930.

Ma, D., M. Notaro, Z. Y. Liu, G. S. Chen, and Y. Q. Liu, 2013: Simulated impacts of afforestation in East China monsoon region as modulated by ocean variability. Climate Dynamics, 41, 2439-2450.

Mahowald, N. M., D. R. Muhs, S. Levis, P. J. Rasch, M. Yoshioka, C. S. Zender, and C. Luo, 2006: Change in atmospheric mineral aerosols in response to climate: Last glacial period, preindustrial, modern, and doubled carbon dioxide climates. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111.

Mahowald, N., K. Lindsay, D. Rothenberg, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, P. Thornton, J. T. Randerson, and C. D. Jones, 2011: Desert dust and anthropogenic aerosol interactions in the Community Climate System Model coupled-carbon-climate model. Biogeosciences, 8, 387-414.

Mahowald, N. M., J. T. Randerson, K. Lindsay, E. Munoz, S. C. Doney, P. Lawrence, S. Schlunegger, D. S. Ward, D. Lawrence, and F. M. Hoffman, 2017: Interactions between land use change and carbon cycle feedbacks. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 31, 96-113.

Maity, S., A. N. V. Satyanarayana, M. Mandal, and S. Nayak, 2017: Performance evaluation of land surface models and cumulus convection schemes in the simulation of Indian summer monsoon using a regional climate model. Atmospheric Research, 197, 21-41.

Maity, S., M. Mandal, S. Nayak, and R. Bhatla, 2017: Performance of cumulus parameterization schemes in the simulation of Indian Summer Monsoon using RegCM4. Atmosfera, 30, 287-309.

Mao, J. F., X. Y. Shi, P. E. Thornton, S. L. Piao, and X. H. Wang, 2012: Causes of spring vegetation growth trends in the northern mid-high latitudes from 1982 to 2004. Environmental Research Letters, 7.

Mao, J., P. E. Thornton, X. Shi, M. Zhao, and W. M. Post, 2012: Remote Sensing Evaluation of CLM4 GPP for the Period 2000–09*. Journal of Climate, 25, 5327-5342.

Mao, J. F., X. Y. Shi, P. E. Thornton, F. M. Hoffman, Z. C. Zhu, and R. B. Myneni, 2013: Global Latitudinal-Asymmetric Vegetation Growth Trends and Their Driving Mechanisms: 1982-2009. Remote Sensing, 5, 1484-1497.

Mao, J., D. M. Ricciuto, P. E. Thornton, J. M. Warren, A. W. King, X. Shi, C. M. Iversen, and R. J. Norby, 2016: Evaluating the Community Land Model in a pine stand with shading manipulations and (CO2)-C-13 labeling. Biogeosciences, 13, 641-657.

Maurya, R. K. S., P. Sinha, M. R. Mohanty, and U. C. Mohanty, 2017: Coupling of Community Land Model with RegCM4 for Indian Summer Monsoon Simulation. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 174, 4251-4270.

Mazrooei, A., T. Sinha, A. Sankarasubramanian, S. Kumar, and C. D. Peters-Lidard, 2015: Decomposition of sources of errors in seasonal streamflow forecasting over the US Sunbelt. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120.

McCrary, R. R. and D. A. Randall, 2010: Great Plains Drought in Simulations of the Twentieth Century. Journal of Climate, 23, 2178-2196.

McDermid, S. S., L. O. Mearns, and A. C. Ruane, 2017: Representing agriculture in Earth System Models: Approaches and priorities for development. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 2230-2265.

Mei, R. and G. L. Wang, 2010: Rain follows logging in the Amazon? Results from CAM3-CLM3. Climate Dynamics, 34, 983-996.

——, 2012: Summer Land-Atmosphere Coupling Strength in the United States: Comparison among Observations, Reanalysis Data, and Numerical Models. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13, 1010-1022.

Mei, R., G. L. Wang, and H. H. Gu, 2013: Summer Land-Atmosphere Coupling Strength over the United States: Results from the Regional Climate Model RegCM4-CLM3.5. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14, 946-962.

Meng, C. L., Z. L. Li, X. Zhan, J. C. Shi, and C. Y. Liu, 2009: Land surface temperature data assimilation and its impact on evapotranspiration estimates from the Common Land Model. Water Resources Research, 45.

Meng, L. and S. M. Quiring, 2010: Examining the influence of spring soil moisture anomalies on summer precipitation in the U.S. Great Plains using the Community Atmosphere Model version 3. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115.

Meng, L., P. G. M. Hess, N. M. Mahowald, J. B. Yavitt, W. J. Riley, Z. M. Subin, D. M. Lawrence, S. C. Swenson, J. Jauhiainen, and D. R. Fuka, 2012: Sensitivity of wetland methane emissions to model assumptions: application and model testing against site observations. Biogeosciences, 9, 2793-2819.

Meng, L., R. Paudel, P. G. M. Hess, and N. M. Mahowald, 2015: Seasonal and interannual variability in wetland methane emissions simulated by CLM4Me ' and CAM-chem and comparisons to observations of concentrations. Biogeosciences, 12, 4029-4049.

Meng, C. L., 2017: Quantifying the impacts of snow on surface energy balance through assimilating snow cover fraction and snow depth. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 129, 529-538.

Meng, X. Y., H. Wang, Y. P. Wu, A. H. Long, J. H. Wang, C. X. Shi, and X. N. Ji, 2017: Investigating spatiotemporal changes of the land-surface processes in Xinjiang using high-resolution CLM3.5 and CLDAS: Soil temperature. Scientific Reports, 7.

Merlin, O., V. G. Stefan, A. Amazirh, A. Chanzy, E. Ceschia, S. Er-Raki, P. Gentine, T. Tallec, J. Ezzahar, S. Bircher, J. Beringer, and S. Khabba, 2016: Modeling soil evaporation efficiency in a range of soil and atmospheric conditions using a meta-analysis approach. Water Resources Research, 52, 3663-3684.

Migliavacca, M., A. Dosio, S. Kloster, D. S. Ward, A. Camia, R. Houborg, T. H. Durrant, N. Khabarov, A. A. Krasovskii, J. S. Miguel-Ayanz, and A. Cescatti, 2013: Modeling burned area in Europe with the Community Land Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 118, 265-279.

Migliavacca, M., A. Dosio, A. Camia, R. Hobourg, T. Houston-Durrant, J. W. Kaiser, N. Khabarov, A. A. Krasovskii, B. Marcolla, J. San Miguel-Ayanz, D. S. Ward, and A. Cescatti, 2013: Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 118, 1732-1747.

Mizukami, N., M. P. Clark, E. D. Gutmann, P. A. Mendoza, A. J. Newman, B. Nijssen, L. Ben, L. E. Hay, J. R. Arnold, and L. D. Brekke, 2016: Implications of the Methodological Choices for Hydrologic Portrayals of Climate Change over the Contiguous United States: Statistically Downscaled Forcing Data and Hydrologic Models. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17, 73-98.

Mo, K. C., L. C. Chen, S. Shukla, T. J. Bohn, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2012: Uncertainties in North American Land Data Assimilation Systems over the Contiguous United States. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13, 996-1009.

Montane, F., A. M. Fox, A. F. Arellano, N. MacBean, M. R. Alexander, A. Dye, D. A. Bishop, V. Trouet, F. Babst, A. E. Hessl, N. Pederson, P. D. Blanken, G. Bohrer, C. M. Gough, M. E. Litvak, K. A. Novick, R. P. Phillips, J. D. Wood, and D. J. P. Moore, 2017: Evaluating the effect of alternative carbon allocation schemes in a land surface model (CLM4.5) on carbon fluxes, pools, and turnover in temperate forests. Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 3499-3517.

Muller, J., R. Paudel, C. A. Shoemaker, J. Woodbury, Y. Wang, and N. Mahowald, 2015: CH4 parameter estimation in CLM4.5bgc using surrogate global optimization. Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 3285-3310.

Murphy, L. N., W. J. Riley, and W. D. Collins, 2012: Local and Remote Climate Impacts from Expansion of Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Feedstock in the Southeastern United States. Journal of Climate, 25, 7643-7659.

Nazemi, A. and H. S. Wheater, 2015: On inclusion of water resource management in Earth system models - Part 2: Representation of water supply and allocation and opportunities for improved modeling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19, 63-90.

Nevison, C., P. Hess, S. Riddick, and D. Ward, 2016: Denitrification, leaching, and river nitrogen export in the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8, 272-291.

Nicolsky, D. J., V. E. Romanovsky, V. A. Alexeev, and D. M. Lawrence, 2007: Improved modeling of permafrost dynamics in a GCM land-surface scheme. Geophysical Research Letters, 34.

Ning, L. K., J. Xia, C. S. Zhan, and Y. Y. Zhang, 2016: Runoff of arid and semi-arid regions simulated and projected by CLM-DTVGM and its multi-scale fluctuations as revealed by EEMD analysis. Journal of Arid Land, 8, 506-520.

Niu, G. Y. and Z. L. Yang, 2004: Modeling the continental hydrology: The interplay between canopy interception and hill-slope runoff. Engineering, Construction and Operations in Challenging Environments: Earth and Space 2004, R. B. Malla and A. Maji, Eds., 284-289.

——, 2004: Effects of vegetation canopy processes on snow surface energy and mass balances. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 109.

Niu, G. Y., Z. L. Yang, R. E. Dickinson, and L. E. Gulden, 2005: A simple TOPMODEL-based runoff parameterization (SIMTOP) for use in global climate models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 110.

Niu, G. Y. and Z. L. Yang, 2006: Effects of frozen soil on snowmelt runoff and soil water storage at a continental scale. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7, 937-952.

——, 2006: Assessing a land surface model's improvements with GRACE estimates. Geophysical Research Letters, 33.

——, 2007: An observation-based formulation of snow cover fraction and its evaluation over large North American river basins. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 112.

Notaro, M., G. S. Chen, and Z. Y. Liu, 2011: Vegetation Feedbacks to Climate in the Global Monsoon Regions. Journal of Climate, 24, 5740-5756.

Notaro, M. and D. Gutzler, 2012: Simulated impact of vegetation on climate across the North American monsoon region in CCSM3.5. Climate Dynamics, 38, 795-814.

Notaro, M., G. S. Chen, Y. Yu, F. Y. Wang, and A. Tawfik, 2017: Regional Climate Modeling of Vegetation Feedbacks on the Asian-Australian Monsoon Systems. Journal of Climate, 30, 1553-1582.

Oleson, K. W., G. B. Bonan, C. Schaaf, F. Gao, Y. F. Jin, and A. Strahler, 2003: Assessment of global climate model land surface albedo using MODIS data. Geophysical Research Letters, 30.

Oleson, K. W., G. B. Bonan, S. Levis, and M. Vertenstein, 2004: Effects of land use change on North American climate: impact of surface datasets and model biogeophysics. Climate Dynamics, 23, 117-132.

Oleson, K. W., G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond, 2008: An urban parameterization for a global climate model. Part I: Formulation and evaluation for two cities. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47, 1038-1060.

Oleson, K. W., G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein, 2008: An urban parameterization for a global climate model. Part II: Sensitivity to input parameters and the simulated urban heat island in offline Simulations. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47, 1061-1076.

Oleson, K. W., G. Y. Niu, Z. L. Yang, D. M. Lawrence, P. E. Thornton, P. J. Lawrence, R. Stockli, R. E. Dickinson, G. B. Bonan, S. Levis, A. Dai, and T. Qian, 2008: Improvements to the Community Land Model and their impact on the hydrological cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 113.

Oleson, K. W., G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and T. Jackson, 2011: An examination of urban heat island characteristics in a global climate model. International Journal of Climatology, 31, 1848-1865.

Olin, S., M. Lindeskog, T. A. M. Pugh, G. Schurgers, D. Warlind, M. Mishurov, S. Zaehle, B. D. Stocker, B. Smith, and A. Arneth, 2015: Soil carbon management in large-scale Earth system modelling: implications for crop yields and nitrogen leaching. Earth System Dynamics, 6, 745-768.

Oliveira, P. J. C., E. L. Davin, S. Levis, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2011: Vegetation-mediated impacts of trends in global radiation on land hydrology: a global sensitivity study. Global Change Biology, 17, 3453-3467.

Orth, R. and S. I. Seneviratne, 2015: Introduction of a simple-model-based land surface dataset for Europe. Environmental Research Letters, 10.

——, 2017: Variability of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Temperatures Similarly Important for Warm-Season Land Climate in the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Climate, 30, 2141-2162.

Ostle, N. J., P. Smith, R. Fisher, F. I. Woodward, J. B. Fisher, J. U. Smith, D. Galbraith, P. Levy, P. Meir, N. P. McNamara, and R. D. Bardgett, 2009: Integrating plant-soil interactions into global carbon cycle models. Journal of Ecology, 97, 851-863.

Otieno, F. O. and D. H. Bromwich, 2009: Contribution of Atmospheric Circulation to Inception of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at 116 kyr BP. Journal of Climate, 22, 39-57.

PaiMazumder, D., J. Miller, Z. Li, J. E. Walsh, A. Etringer, J. McCreight, T. Zhang, and N. Molders, 2008: Evaluation of Community Climate System Model soil temperatures using observations from Russia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 94, 187-213.

Pan, L., J. M. Jin, N. Miller, S. Wu, and G. Bodvarsson, 2008: Modeling hydraulic responses to meteorological forcing: From canopy to aquifer. Vadose Zone Journal, 7, 325-331.

Pan, Y. J., S. H. Lyu, S. S. Li, Y. H. Gao, X. H. Meng, Y. H. Ao, and S. J. Wang, 2017: Simulating the role of gravel in freeze-thaw process on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 127, 1011-1022.

Paolino, D. A., J. L. Kinter, B. P. Kirtman, D. H. Min, and D. M. Straus, 2012: The Impact of Land Surface and Atmospheric Initialization on Seasonal Forecasts with CCSM. Journal of Climate, 25, 1007-1021.

Parazoo, N. C., C. D. Koven, D. M. Lawrence, V. Romanovsky, and C. E. Miller, 2018: Detecting the permafrost carbon feedback: talik formation and increased cold-season respiration as precursors to sink-to-source transitions. Cryosphere, 12, 123-144.

Parish, E. S., E. Kodra, K. Steinhaeuser, and A. R. Ganguly, 2012: Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population. Computers & Geosciences, 42, 79-86.

Park, C. E., C. H. Ho, S. J. Jeong, J. W. Kim, and S. Feng, 2012: The potential of vegetation feedback to alleviate climate aridity over the United States associated with a 2xCO(2) climate condition. Climate Dynamics, 38, 1489-1500.

Park, T. W., Y. Deng, M. Cai, J. H. Jeong, and R. J. Zhou, 2014: A dissection of the surface temperature biases in the Community Earth System Model. Climate Dynamics, 43, 2043-2059.

Parr, D., G. L. Wang, and C. S. Fu, 2016: Understanding evapotranspiration trends and their driving mechanisms over the NLDAS domain based on numerical experiments using CLM4.5. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 7729-7745.

Paudel, R., N. M. Mahowald, P. G. M. Hess, L. Meng, and W. J. Riley, 2016: Attribution of changes in global wetland methane emissions from pre-industrial to present using CLM4.5-BGC. Environmental Research Letters, 11.

Peng, J., L. Dan, and W. J. Dong, 2014: Are there interactive effects of physiological and radiative forcing produced by increased CO2 concentration on changes of land hydrological cycle? Global and Planetary Change, 112, 64-78.

Philippon-Berthier, G., S. J. Vavrus, J. E. Kutzbach, and W. F. Ruddiman, 2010: Role of plant physiology and dynamic vegetation feedbacks in the climate response to low GHG concentrations typical of late stages of previous interglacials. Geophysical Research Letters, 37.

Phillips, T. J., S. A. Klein, H. Y. Ma, Q. Tang, S. C. Xie, I. N. Williams, J. A. Santanello, D. R. Cook, and M. S. Torn, 2017: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Climate Model Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the US Southern Great Plains. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 122, 11524-11548.

Pinheiro, A. C. T., K. Arsenault, P. Houser, D. Toll, S. Kumar, D. Matthews, and R. W. Stodt, 2004: Improved evapotranspiration estimates to aid water management practices in the Rio Grande River Basin. Igarss 2004: Ieee International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Proceedings, Vols 1-7 - Science for Society: Exploring and Managing a Changing Planet, 2123-2126.

Post, H., J. A. Vrugt, A. Fox, H. Vereecken, and H. J. H. Franssen, 2017: Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 122, 661-689.

Post, H., H. J. H. Franssen, X. J. Han, R. Baatz, C. Montzka, M. Schmidt, and H. Vereecken, 2017: Evaluation and uncertainty analysis of regional-scale CLM4.5 net carbon flux estimates. Biogeosciences, 15, 187-208.

Powell, T. L., D. R. Galbraith, B. O. Christoffersen, A. Harper, H. M. A. Imbuzeiro, L. Rowland, S. Almeida, P. M. Brando, A. C. L. da Costa, M. H. Costa, N. M. Levine, Y. Malhi, S. R. Saleska, E. Sotta, M. Williams, P. Meir, and P. R. Moorcroft, 2013: Confronting model predictions of carbon fluxes with measurements of Amazon forests subjected to experimental drought. New Phytologist, 200, 350-364.

Pu, B. and R. E. Dickinson, 2012: Examining vegetation feedbacks on global warming in the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117.

——, 2014: Hydrological changes in the climate system from leaf responses to increasing CO2. Climate Dynamics, 42, 1905-1923.

Qian, T. T., A. Dai, K. E. Trenberth, and K. W. Oleson, 2006: Simulation of global land surface conditions from 1948 to 2004. Part I: Forcing data and evaluations. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7, 953-975.

Qian, T., A. Dai, and K. E. Trenberth, 2007: Hydroclimatic trends in the Mississippi River basin from 1948 to 2004. Journal of Climate, 20, 4599-4614.

Qin, Y., D. W. Yang, H. M. Lei, K. Xu, and X. Y. Xu, 2015: Comparative analysis of drought based on precipitation and soil moisture indices in Haihe basin of North China during the period of 1960-2010. Journal of Hydrology, 526, 55-67.

Qiu, L. J., X. D. Liu, and Y. Q. Hao, 2017: Quantitative assessment of the role of doubled CO2 and associated climate change in the vegetation dynamics and hydrological cycle in the Sino-Mongolia arid and semi-arid region. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 31, 785-797.

Qu, X. and A. Hall, 2006: Assessing snow albedo feedback in simulated climate change. Journal of Climate, 19, 2617-2630.

Quillet, A., C. H. Peng, and M. Garneau, 2011: Toward dynamic global vegetation models for simulating vegetation-climate interactions and feedbacks: recent developments, limitations, and future challenges. Environmental Reviews, 18, 333-353.

Rachmayani, R., M. Prange, and M. Schulz, 2015: North African vegetation-precipitation feedback in early and mid-Holocene climate simulations with CCSM3-DGVM. Climate of the Past, 11, 175-185.

Raczka, B., H. F. Duarte, C. D. Koven, D. Ricciuto, P. E. Thornton, J. C. Lin, and D. R. Bowling, 2016: An observational constraint on stomatal function in forests: evaluating coupled carbon and water vapor exchange with carbon isotopes in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). Biogeosciences, 13, 5183-5204.

Rafique, R., J. Y. Xia, O. Hararuk, G. Y. Leng, G. Asrar, and Y. Q. Luo, 2017: Comparing the Performance of Three Land Models in Global C Cycle Simulations: a Detailed Structural Analysis. Land Degradation & Development, 28, 524-533.

Rains, D., X. Han, H. Lievens, C. Montzka, and N. E. C. Verhoest, 2017: SMOS brightness temperature assimilation into the Community Land Model. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5929-5951.

Randerson, J. T., F. M. Hoffman, P. E. Thornton, N. M. Mahowald, K. Lindsay, Y. H. Lee, C. D. Nevison, S. C. Doney, G. Bonan, R. Stockli, C. Covey, S. W. Running, and I. Y. Fung, 2009: Systematic assessment of terrestrial biogeochemistry in coupled climate-carbon models. Global Change Biology, 15, 2462-2484.

Randerson, J. T., K. Lindsay, E. Munoz, W. Fu, J. K. Moore, F. M. Hoffman, N. M. Mahowald, and S. C. Doney, 2015: Multicentury changes in ocean and land contributions to the climate-carbon feedback. Global biogeochemical cycles, 29, 744-759.

Rauscher, S. A., X. Y. Jiang, A. Steiner, A. P. Williams, D. M. Cai, and N. G. McDowell, 2015: Sea Surface Temperature Warming Patterns and Future Vegetation Change. Journal of Climate, 28, 7943-7961.

Ren, H. Y., Z. S. Hou, M. Y. Huang, J. Bao, Y. Sun, T. Tesfa, and L. R. Leung, 2016: Classification of hydrological parameter sensitivity and evaluation of parameter transferability across 431 US MOPEX basins. Journal of Hydrology, 536, 92-108.

Riddick, S., D. Ward, P. Hess, N. Mahowald, R. Massad, and E. Holland, 2016: Estimate of changes in agricultural terrestrial nitrogen pathways and ammonia emissions from 1850 to present in the Community Earth System Model. Biogeosciences, 13, 3397-3426.

Riley, W. J., Z. M. Subin, D. M. Lawrence, S. C. Swenson, M. S. Torn, L. Meng, N. M. Mahowald, and P. Hess, 2011: Barriers to predicting changes in global terrestrial methane fluxes: analyses using CLM4Me, a methane biogeochemistry model integrated in CESM. Biogeosciences, 8, 1925-1953.

Rowland, L., A. Harper, B. O. Christoffersen, D. R. Galbraith, H. M. A. Imbuzeiro, T. L. Powell, C. Doughty, N. M. Levine, Y. Malhi, S. R. Saleska, P. R. Moorcroft, P. Meir, and M. Williams, 2015: Modelling climate change responses in tropical forests: similar productivity estimates across five models, but different mechanisms and responses. Geoscientific Model Development, 8, 1097-1110.

Ruiz-Barradas, A. and S. Nigam, 2006: IPCC's twentieth-century climate simulations: Varied representations of north American hydroclimate variability. Journal of Climate, 19, 4041-4058.

Sacks, W. J., B. I. Cook, N. Buenning, S. Levis, and J. H. Helkowski, 2009: Effects of global irrigation on the near-surface climate. Climate Dynamics, 33, 159-175.

Sadiq, M., A. P. K. Tai, D. Lombardozzi, and M. V. Martin, 2017: Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 3055-3066.

Sahoo, A. K., P. A. Dirmeyer, P. R. Houser, and M. Kafatos, 2008: A study of land surface processes using land surface models over the Little River Experimental Watershed, Georgia. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113.

Saikawa, E., C. A. Schlosser, and R. G. Prinn, 2013: Global modeling of soil nitrous oxide emissions from natural processes. Global biogeochemical cycles, 27, 972-989.

Sakaguchi, K. and X. B. Zeng, 2009: Effects of soil wetness, plant litter, and under-canopy atmospheric stability on ground evaporation in the Community Land Model (CLM3.5). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 114.

Sakaguchi, K., X. B. Zeng, B. J. Christoffersen, N. Restrepo-Coupe, S. R. Saleska, and P. M. Brando, 2011: Natural and drought scenarios in an east central Amazon forest: Fidelity of the Community Land Model 3.5 with three biogeochemical models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116.

Sakaguchi, K., X. Zeng, L. R. Leung, and P. Shao, 2016: Influence of dynamic vegetation on carbon-nitrogen cycle feedback in the Community Land Model (CLM4). Environmental Research Letters, 11.

Sakalli, A., 2017: Impacts of Climate Change on Net Primary Production: a Modelling Study at Pan-European Scale. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15, 1-15.

Sargsyan, K., C. Safta, H. N. Najm, B. J. Debusschere, D. Ricciuto, and P. Thornton, 2014: DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION FOR COMPLEX MODELS VIA BAYESIAN COMPRESSIVE SENSING. International Journal for Uncertainty Quantification, 4, 63-93.

Schmidt, A., B. E. Law, M. Gockede, C. Hanson, Z. L. Yang, and S. Conley, 2016: Bayesian Optimization of the Community Land Model Simulated Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange using CO2 Observations from a Dense Tower Network and Aircraft Campaigns over Oregon. Earth Interactions, 20, 1-35.

Schultz, N. M., X. Lee, P. J. Lawrence, D. M. Lawrence, and L. Zhao, 2016: Assessing the use of subgrid land model output to study impacts of land cover change. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 6133-6147.

Schwinger, J., S. J. Kollet, C. M. Hoppe, and H. Elbern, 2011: Sensitivity of Latent Heat Fluxes to Initial Values and Parameters of a Land-Surface Model. Vadose Zone Journal, 9, 984-1001.

Seneviratne, S. I., R. D. Koster, Z. C. Guo, P. A. Dirmeyer, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. H. Lu, D. Mocko, K. W. Oleson, and D. Verseghy, 2006: Soil moisture memory in AGCM simulations: Analysis of global land-atmosphere coupling experiment (GLACE) data. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7, 1090-1112.

Serpetzoglou, E., E. N. Anagnostou, A. Papadopoulos, E. I. Nikolopoulos, and V. Maggioni, 2010: Error Propagation of Remote Sensing Rainfall Estimates in Soil Moisture Prediction from a Land Surface Model. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 11, 705-720.

Shen, C. P., J. Niu, and M. S. Phanikumar, 2013: Evaluating controls on coupled hydrologic and vegetation dynamics in a humid continental climate watershed using a subsurface- land surface processes model. Water Resources Research, 49, 2552-2572.

Shen, C. P., J. Niu, and K. Fang, 2014: Quantifying the effects of data integration algorithms on the outcomes of a subsurface-land surface processes model. Environmental Modelling & Software, 59, 146-161.

Shen, C. P., W. J. Riley, K. R. Smithgall, J. M. Melack, and K. Fang, 2016: The fan of influence of streams and channel feedbacks to simulated land surface water and carbon dynamics. Water Resources Research, 52, 880-902.

Sheng, L., S. H. Liu, and H. P. Liu, 2010: Influences of Climate Change and Its Interannual Variability on Surface Energy Fluxes from 1948 to 2000. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 27, 1438-1452.

——, 2010: Climate-induced hotspots in surface energy fluxes from 1948 to 2000. Environmental Research Letters, 5.

Sheng, M. Y., H. M. Lei, Y. Jiao, and D. W. Yang, 2017: Evaluation of the Runoff and River Routing Schemes in the Community Land Model of the Yellow River Basin. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 2993-3018.

Shi, X. Y., J. F. Mao, P. E. Thornton, F. M. Hoffman, and W. M. Post, 2011: The impact of climate, CO2, nitrogen deposition and land use change on simulated contemporary global river flow. Geophysical Research Letters, 38.

Shi, C. X., Z. H. Xie, H. Qian, M. L. Liang, and X. C. Yang, 2011: China land soil moisture EnKF data assimilation based on satellite remote sensing data. Science China-Earth Sciences, 54, 1430-1440.

Shi, X. Y., J. F. Mao, P. E. Thornton, and M. Y. Huang, 2013: Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration in response to multiple environmental factors simulated by the Community Land Model. Environmental Research Letters, 8.

Shi, M., Z.-L. Yang, D. M. Lawrence, R. E. Dickinson, and Z. M. Subin, 2013: Spin-up processes in the Community Land Model version 4 with explicit carbon and nitrogen components. ecological modelling, 263, 308-325.

Shi, M., Z.-L. Yang, and F. W. Landerer, 2013: Representing and evaluating the landscape freeze/thaw properties and their impacts on soil impermeability: Hydrological processes in the community land model version 4. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, 7542-7557.

Shi, X., P. E. Thornton, D. M. Ricciuto, P. J. Hanson, J. Mao, S. D. Sebestyen, N. A. Griffiths, and G. Bisht, 2015: Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model. Biogeosciences, 12, 6463-6477.

Shi, M., J. B. Fisher, E. R. Brzostek, and R. P. Phillips, 2016: Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in theCommunity Land Model. Global Change Biology, 22, 1299-1314.

Shi, M. J., Z. L. Yang, G. L. Stenchikov, S. P. Parajuli, W. C. Tao, and S. Kalenderski, 2016: Quantifying the impacts of landscape heterogeneity and model resolution on dust emissions in the Arabian Peninsula. Environmental Modelling & Software, 78, 106-119.

Shi, M. J., J. J. Liu, M. S. Zhao, Y. F. Yu, and S. Saatchi, 2017: Mechanistic Processes Controlling Persistent Changes of Forest Canopy Structure After 2005 Amazon Drought. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 122, 3378-3390.

Shin, D. W., S. Cocke, T. E. LaRow, and J. J. O'Brien, 2005: Seasonal surface air temperature and precipitation in the FSU climate model coupled to the CLM2. Journal of Climate, 18, 3217-3228.

Shin, D. W., J. G. Bellow, T. E. Larow, S. Cocke, and J. J. O'Brien, 2006: The role of an advanced land model in seasonal dynamical downscaling for crop model application. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 45, 686-701.

Shin, D. W., S. Cocke, and T. E. Larow, 2007: Diurnal cycle of precipitation in a climate model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 112.

Shrestha, P., M. Sulis, M. Masbou, S. Kollet, and C. Simmer, 2014: A Scale-Consistent Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform Based on COSMO, CLM, and ParFlow. Monthly weather review, 142, 3466-3483.

Singh, R. S., J. T. Reager, N. L. Miller, and J. S. Famiglietti, 2015: Toward hyper-resolution land-surface modeling: The effects of fine-scale topography and soil texture on CLM4.0 simulations over the Southwestern US. Water Resources Research, 51, 2648-2667.

Skinner, C. B., C. J. Poulsen, R. Chadwick, N. S. Diffenbaugh, and R. P. Fiorella, 2017: The Role of Plant CO2 Physiological Forcing in Shaping Future Daily-Scale Precipitation. Journal of Climate, 30, 2319-2340.

Skoulika, F., M. Santamouris, D. Kolokotsa, and N. Boemi, 2014: On the thermal characteristics and the mitigation potential of a medium size urban park in Athens, Greece. Landscape and Urban Planning, 123, 73-86.

Slater, A. G., T. J. Bohn, J. L. McCreight, M. C. Serreze, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2007: A multimodel simulation of pan-Arctic hydrology. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 112.

Small, R. J., J. Bacmeister, D. Bailey, A. Baker, S. Bishop, F. Bryan, J. Caron, J. Dennis, P. Gent, H. M. Hsu, M. Jochum, D. Lawrence, E. Munoz, P. diNezio, T. Scheitlin, R. Tomas, J. Tribbia, Y. H. Tseng, and M. Vertenstein, 2014: A new synoptic scale resolving global climate simulation using the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 6, 1065-1094.

Smith, N. G., D. Lombardozzi, A. Tawfik, G. Bonan, and J. S. Dukes, 2017: Biophysical consequences of photosynthetic temperature acclimation for climate. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 536-547.

Song, X., X. D. Zeng, and J. W. Zhu, 2013: Evaluating the tree population density and its impacts in CLM-DGVM. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 30, 116-124.

Steed, C. A., D. M. Ricciuto, G. Shipman, B. Smith, P. E. Thornton, D. L. Wang, X. Y. Shi, and D. N. Williams, 2013: Big data visual analytics for exploratory earth system simulation analysis. Computers & Geosciences, 61, 71-82.

Steiner, A. L., J. S. Pal, S. A. Rauscher, J. L. Bell, N. S. Diffenbaugh, A. Boone, L. C. Sloan, and F. Giorgi, 2009: Land surface coupling in regional climate simulations of the West African monsoon. Climate Dynamics, 33, 869-892.

Stepanenko, V. M., A. Martynov, K. D. Jöhnk, Z. M. Subin, M. Perroud, X. Fang, F. Beyrich, D. Mironov, and S. Goyette, 2013: A one-dimensional model intercomparison study of thermal regime of a shallow, turbid midlatitude lake. Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1337-1352.

Stepanenko, V., K. D. Jöhnk, E. Machulskaya, M. Perroud, Z. Subin, A. Nordbo, I. Mammarella, and D. Mironov, 2014: Simulation of surface energy fluxes and stratification of a small boreal lake by a set of one-dimensional models. 2014.

Stockli, R., D. M. Lawrence, G. Y. Niu, K. W. Oleson, P. E. Thornton, Z. L. Yang, G. B. Bonan, A. S. Denning, and S. W. Running, 2008: Use of FLUXNET in the community land model development. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 113.

Su, H., Z. L. Yang, G. Y. Niu, and R. E. Dickinson, 2008: Enhancing the estimation of continental-scale snow water equivalent by assimilating MODIS snow cover with the ensemble Kalman filter. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113.

Su, H., Z. L. Yang, R. E. Dickinson, C. R. Wilson, and G. Y. Niu, 2010: Multisensor snow data assimilation at the continental scale: The value of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment terrestrial water storage information. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115.

Subin, Z. M., L. N. Murphy, F. Y. Li, C. Bonfils, and W. J. Riley, 2012: Boreal lakes moderate seasonal and diurnal temperature variation and perturb atmospheric circulation: analyses in the Community Earth System Model 1 (CESM1). Tellus Series a-Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 64.

Subin, Z. M., C. D. Koven, W. J. Riley, M. S. Torn, D. M. Lawrence, and S. C. Swenson, 2012: Effects of Soil Moisture on the Responses of Soil Temperatures to Climate Change in Cold Regions*. Journal of Climate, 26, 3139-3158.

——, 2013: Effects of Soil Moisture on the Responses of Soil Temperatures to Climate Change in Cold Regions. Journal of Climate, 26, 3139-3158.

Sun, X. M. and G. L. Wang, 2008: Comparing the ability of a genetic algorithm based clustering analysis and a physically based dynamic vegetation model to predict vegetation distribution. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 113.

Sun, S. S. and G. L. Wang, 2011: Diagnosing the equilibrium state of a coupled global biosphere-atmosphere model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 116.

Sun, Y., L. H. Gu, and R. E. Dickinson, 2012: A numerical issue in calculating the coupled carbon and water fluxes in a climate model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117.

Sun, Y., Z. Hou, M. Huang, F. Tian, and L. R. Leung, 2013: Inverse modeling of hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in the Community Land Model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 4995-5011.

Sun, Q., Z. H. Xie, and X. J. Tian, 2015: GRACE terrestrial water storage data assimilation based on the ensemble four-dimensional variational method PODEn4DVar: Method and validation. Science China-Earth Sciences, 58, 371-384.

Sun, S. B., B. Z. Chen, M. Y. Ge, J. F. Qu, T. Che, H. F. Zhang, X. F. Lin, M. L. Che, Z. Y. Zhou, L. F. Guo, and B. Y. Wang, 2016: Improving soil organic carbon parameterization of land surface model for cold regions in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. ecological modelling, 330, 1-15.

Sun, J. and M. S. Pritchard, 2016: Effects of explicit convection on global land-atmosphere coupling in the superparameterized CAM. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8, 1248-1269.

Sun, S. B., B. Z. Chen, J. Chen, M. L. Che, and H. F. Zhang, 2016: Comparison of remotely-sensed and modeled soil moisture using CLM4.0 with in situ measurements in the central Tibetan Plateau area. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 129, 31-44.

Sun, S. B., B. Z. Chen, Q. Q. Shao, J. Chen, J. Y. Liu, X. J. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and X. F. Lin, 2017: Modeling Evapotranspiration over China's Landmass from 1979 to 2012 Using Multiple Land Surface Models: Evaluations and Analyses. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18, 1185-1203.

Swenson, S. C., D. M. Lawrence, and H. Lee, 2012: Improved simulation of the terrestrial hydrological cycle in permafrost regions by the Community Land Model. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 4, M08002.

Swenson, S. C. and D. M. Lawrence, 2012: A new fractional snow-covered area parameterization for the Community Land Model and its effect on the surface energy balance. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 117.

——, 2014: Assessing a dry surface layer-based soil resistance parameterization for the Community Land Model using GRACE and FLUXNET-MTE data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119.

——, 2015: A GRACE-based assessment of interannual groundwater dynamics in the Community Land Model. Water Resources Research, 51, 8817-8833.

Sylla, M. B., J. S. Pal, G. L. L. Wang, and P. J. Lawrence, 2016: Impact of land cover characterization on regional climate modeling over West Africa. Climate Dynamics, 46, 637-650.

Tang, J. Y. and W. J. Riley, 2013: Impacts of a new bare-soil evaporation formulation on site, regional, and global surface energy and water budgets in CLM4. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 5, 558-571.

Tang, J. Y., W. J. Riley, and J. Niu, 2015: Incorporating root hydraulic redistribution in CLM4.5: Effects on predicted site and global evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and water storage. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 7, 1828-1848.

Tang, G. P., F. M. Yuan, G. Bisht, G. E. Hammond, P. C. Lichtner, J. Kumar, R. T. Mills, X. F. Xu, B. Andre, F. M. Hoffman, S. L. Painter, and P. E. Thornton, 2016: Addressing numerical challenges in introducing a reactive transport code into a land surface model: a biogeochemical modeling proof-of-concept with CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0. Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 927-946.

Tang, G. P., J. Q. Zheng, X. F. Xu, Z. M. Yang, D. E. Graham, B. H. Gu, S. L. Painter, and P. E. Thornton, 2016: Biogeochemical modeling of CO2 and CH4 production in anoxic Arctic soil microcosms. Biogeosciences, 13, 5021-5041.

Tawfik, A. B. and A. L. Steiner, 2011: The role of soil ice in land-atmosphere coupling over the United States: A soil moisture-precipitation winter feedback mechanism. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 116.

Tawfik, A. B., D. M. Lawrence, and P. A. Dirmeyer, 2017: Representing subgrid convective initiation in the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 1740-1758.

Tesfa, T. K., L. R. Leung, M. Y. Huang, H. Y. Li, N. Voisin, and M. S. Wigmosta, 2014: Scalability of grid- and subbasin-based land surface modeling approaches for hydrologic simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119, 3166-3184.

Tesfa, T. K., H. Y. Li, L. R. Leung, M. Huang, Y. Ke, Y. Sun, and Y. Liu, 2014: A subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth system model. Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 947-963.

Thackeray, C. W., C. G. Fletcher, and C. Derksen, 2014: The influence of canopy snow parameterizations on snow albedo feedback in boreal forest regions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119, 9810-9821.

Thiery, W., V. M. Stepanenko, X. Fang, K. D. Jöhnk, Z. Li, A. Martynov, M. Perroud, Z. M. Subin, F. Darchambeau, D. Mironov, and N. P. M. van Lipzig, 2014: LakeMIP Kivu: evaluating the representation of a large, deep tropical lake by a set of one-dimensional lake models. 2014.

Thiery, W., E. L. Davin, H. J. Panitz, M. Demuzere, S. Lhermitte, and N. van Lipzig, 2015: The Impact of the African Great Lakes on the Regional Climate. Journal of Climate, 28, 4061-4085.

Thiery, W., E. L. Davin, D. M. Lawrence, A. L. Hirsch, M. Hauser, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2017: Present-day irrigation mitigates heat extremes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 122, 1403-1422.

Thomas, B. F., J. S. Famiglietti, F. W. Landerer, D. N. Wiese, N. P. Molotch, and D. F. Argus, 2017: GRACE Groundwater Drought Index: Evaluation of California Central Valley groundwater drought. Remote Sensing of Environment, 198, 384-392.

Thornton, P. E., J. F. Lamarque, N. A. Rosenbloom, and N. M. Mahowald, 2007: Influence of carbon-nitrogen cycle coupling on land model response to CO2 fertilization and climate variability. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21.

Thornton, P. E. and N. E. Zimmermann, 2007: An improved canopy integration scheme for a land surface model with prognostic canopy structure. Journal of Climate, 20, 3902-3923.

Tian, Y., R. E. Dickinson, L. Zhou, and M. Shaikh, 2004: Impact of new land boundary conditions from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data on the climatology of land surface variables. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 109.

Tian, Y., R. E. Dickinson, L. Zhou, R. B. Myneni, M. Friedl, C. B. Schaaf, M. Carroll, and F. Gao, 2004: Land boundary conditions from MODIS data and consequences for the albedo of a climate model. Geophysical Research Letters, 31.

Tian, Y., R. E. Dickinson, L. Zhou, X. Zeng, Y. Dai, R. B. Myneni, Y. Knyazikhin, X. Zhang, M. Friedl, Yu, II, W. Wu, and M. Shaikh, 2004: Comparison of seasonal and spatial variations of leaf area index and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Common Land Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 109.

Tian, X. J., Z. H. Xie, S. L. Zhang, and M. L. Liang, 2006: A subsurface runoff parameterization with water storage and recharge based on the Boussinesq-Storage Equation for a Land Surface Model. Science in China Series D-Earth Sciences, 49, 622-631.

Tian, X. J., A. Dai, D. Q. Yang, and Z. H. Xie, 2007: Effects of precipitation-bias corrections on surface hydrology over northern latitudes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 112.

Tian, X. J., Z. H. Xie, and A. Dai, 2008: A land surface soil moisture data assimilation system based on the dual-UKF method and the Community Land Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113.

Tian, X. J. and Z. H. Xie, 2008: A land surface soil moisture data assimilation framework in consideration of the model subgrid-scale heterogeneity and soil water thawing and freezing. Science in China Series D-Earth Sciences, 51, 992-1000.

Tian, X. J., Z. H. Xie, A. G. Dai, B. H. Jia, and C. X. Shi, 2010: A microwave land data assimilation system: Scheme and preliminary evaluation over China. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115.

Tian, H. and M. Iqbal, 2017: Utilizing a new soil effective temperature scheme and archived satellite microwave brightness temperature data to estimate surface soil moisture in the Nagqu region, Tibetan Plateau of China. Journal of Arid Land, 10, 84-100.

Tong, J. A., Y. You, R. D. Muller, and M. Seton, 2009: Climate model sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 concentrations for the middle Miocene. Global and Planetary Change, 67, 129-140.

Tosca, M. G., J. T. Randerson, C. S. Zender, M. G. Flanner, and P. J. Rasch, 2010: Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Nino? Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 3515-3528.

Toure, A. M., M. Rodell, Z. L. Yang, H. Beaudoing, E. Kim, Y. F. Zhang, and Y. W. Kwon, 2016: Evaluation of the Snow Simulations from the Community Land Model, Version 4 (CLM4). Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17, 153-170.

Tran, A. P., B. Dafflon, and S. S. Hubbard, 2017: Coupled land surface-subsurface hydrogeophysical inverse modeling to estimate soil organic carbon content and explore associated hydrological and thermal dynamics in the Arctic tundra. Cryosphere, 11, 2089-2109.

Trenberth, K. E., L. Smith, T. T. Qian, A. Dai, and J. Fasullo, 2007: Estimates of the global water budget and its annual cycle using observational and model data. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8, 758-769.

Tseng, Y. H., S. H. Chien, J. M. Jin, and N. L. Miller, 2012: Modeling Air-Land-Sea Interactions Using the Integrated Regional Model System in Monterey Bay, California. Monthly weather review, 140, 1285-1306.

Tsvetsinskaya, E. A., C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. H. Strahler, and R. E. Dickinson, 2006: Spatial and temporal variability in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived surface albedo over global arid regions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111.

van Kampenhout, L., J. T. M. Lenaerts, W. H. Lipscomb, W. J. Sacks, D. M. Lawrence, A. G. Slater, and M. R. van den Broeke, 2017: Improving the Representation of Polar Snow and Firn in the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 2583-2600.

Vanden Broucke, S., S. Luyssaert, E. L. Davin, I. Janssens, and N. van Lipzig, 2015: New insights in the capability of climate models to simulate the impact of LUC based on temperature decomposition of paired site observations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120, 5417-5436.

Vano, J. A., T. Das, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2012: Hydrologic Sensitivities of Colorado River Runoff to Changes in Precipitation and Temperature. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13, 932-949.

Vavrus, S., 2007: The role of terrestrial snow cover in the climate system. Climate Dynamics, 29, 73-88.

Vavrus, S., W. F. Ruddiman, and J. E. Kutzbach, 2008: Climate model tests of the anthropogenic influence on greenhouse-induced climate change: the role of early human agriculture, industrialization, and vegetation feedbacks. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 1410-1425.

Vizcaino, M., W. H. Lipscomb, W. J. Sacks, and M. van den Broeke, 2014: Greenland Surface Mass Balance as Simulated by the Community Earth System Model. Part II: Twenty-First-Century Changes. Journal of Climate, 27, 215-226.

Voisin, N., L. Liu, M. Hejazi, T. Tesfa, H. Li, M. Huang, Y. Liu, and L. R. Leung, 2013: One-way coupling of an integrated assessment model and a water resources model: evaluation and implications of future changes over the US Midwest. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4555-4575.

Wang, Z., X. Zeng, M. Barlage, R. E. Dickinson, F. Gao, and C. B. Schaaf, 2004: Using MODIS BRDF and albedo data to evaluate global model land surface albedo. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5, 3-14.

Wang, D. G., G. Wang, and E. N. Anagnostou, 2007: Evaluation of canopy interception schemes in band surface models. Journal of Hydrology, 347, 308-318.

Wang, G. L., Y. Kim, and D. G. Wang, 2007: Quantifying the strength of soil moisture-precipitation coupling and its sensitivity to changes in surface water budget. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8, 551-570.

Wang, A., K. Y. Li, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2008: Integration of the variable infiltration capacity model soil hydrology scheme into the community land model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113.

Wang, A. H. and X. Zeng, 2009: Improving the Treatment of the Vertical Snow Burial Fraction over Short Vegetation in the NCAR CLM3. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 26, 877-886.

Wang, D. G., G. L. Wang, and E. N. Anagnostou, 2009: Impact of sub-grid variability of precipitation and canopy water storage on hydrological processes in a coupled land-atmosphere model. Climate Dynamics, 32, 649-662.

Wang, Z. and X. B. Zeng, 2010: Evaluation of Snow Albedo in Land Models for Weather and Climate Studies. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49, 363-380.

Wang, G. L., 2011: Assessing the potential hydrological impacts of hydraulic redistribution in Amazonia using a numerical modeling approach. Water Resources Research, 47.

Wang, A. H. and X. B. Zeng, 2011: Sensitivities of terrestrial water cycle simulations to the variations of precipitation and air temperature in China. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 116.

Wang, A., D. P. Lettenmaier, and J. Sheffield, 2011: Soil Moisture Drought in China, 1950-2006. Journal of Climate, 24, 3257-3271.

Wang, K., J. F. Mao, R. E. Dickinson, X. Y. Shi, W. M. Post, Z. C. Zhu, and R. B. Myneni, 2013: Evaluation of CLM4 Solar Radiation Partitioning Scheme Using Remote Sensing and Site Level FPAR Datasets. Remote Sensing, 5, 2857-2882.

Wang, F. Y., M. Notaro, Z. Y. Liu, and G. S. Chen, 2014: Observed Local and Remote Influences of Vegetation on the Atmosphere across North America Using a Model-Validated Statistical Technique That First Excludes Oceanic Forcings. Journal of Climate, 27, 362-382.

Wang, D. L., Y. Xu, P. Thornton, A. King, C. Steed, L. H. Gu, and J. Schuchart, 2014: A functional test platform for the Community Land Model. Environmental Modelling & Software, 55, 25-31.

Wang, A. H., M. Barlage, X. B. Zeng, and C. S. Draper, 2014: Comparison of land skin temperature from a land model, remote sensing, and in situ measurement. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119, 3093-3106.

Wang, A. W., Z. H. Xie, X. B. Feng, X. J. Tian, and P. H. Qin, 2014: A soil water and heat transfer model including changes in soil frost and thaw fronts. Science China-Earth Sciences, 57, 1325-1339.

Wang, X. J., M. X. Yang, G. J. Pang, G. N. Wan, and X. L. Chen, 2015: Simulation and improvement of land surface processes in Nameqie, Central Tibetan Plateau, using the Community Land Model (CLM3.5). Environmental Earth Sciences, 73, 7343-7357.

Wang, S. S., M. Pan, Q. Z. Mu, X. Y. Shi, J. F. Mao, C. Brummer, R. S. Jassal, P. Krishnan, J. H. Li, and T. A. Black, 2015: Comparing Evapotranspiration from Eddy Covariance Measurements, Water Budgets, Remote Sensing, and Land Surface Models over Canada. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 16, 1540-1560.

Wang, G. L., M. Yu, J. S. Pal, R. Mei, G. B. Bonan, S. Levis, and P. E. Thornton, 2016: On the development of a coupled regional climate-vegetation model RCM-CLM-CN-DV and its validation in Tropical Africa. Climate Dynamics, 46, 515-539.

Wang, L., X. P. Li, Y. Y. Chen, K. Yang, D. L. Chen, J. Zhou, W. B. Liu, J. Qi, and J. B. Huang, 2016: Validation of the global land data assimilation system based on measurements of soil temperature profiles. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 218, 288-297.

Wang, X. J., G. J. Pang, M. X. Yang, and G. N. Wan, 2016: Effects of modified soil water-heat physics on RegCM4 simulations of climate over the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 6692-6712.

Wang, A. H., X. B. Zeng, and D. L. Guo, 2016: Estimates of Global Surface Hydrology and Heat Fluxes from the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) with Four Atmospheric Forcing Datasets. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17, 2493-2510.

Wang, D. G., G. L. Wang, D. T. Parr, W. L. Liao, Y. L. Xia, and C. S. Fu, 2017: Incorporating remote sensing-based ET estimates into the Community Land Model version 4.5. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 21, 3557-3577.

Wang, L. and K. K. W. Cheung, 2017: Potential impact of reforestation programmes and uncertainties in land cover effects over the loess plateau: a regional climate modeling study. Climatic Change, 144, 475-490.

Ward, D. S., S. Kloster, N. M. Mahowald, B. M. Rogers, J. T. Randerson, and P. G. Hess, 2012: The changing radiative forcing of fires: global model estimates for past, present and future. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 10857-10886.

Ward, D. S., N. M. Mahowald, and S. Kloster, 2014: Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 12701-12724.

Wen, L., N. Nagabhatla, S. Lü, and S.-Y. Wang, 2013: Impact of rain snow threshold temperature on snow depth simulation in land surface and regional atmospheric models. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 30, 1449-1460.

Wen, L. J., 2015: Impacts of a Saline Lake and Its Salinity on Local Precipitation. Advances in Meteorology.

Wen, L. J., S. H. Lv, Z. G. Li, L. Zhao, and N. Nagabhatla, 2015: Impacts of the Two Biggest Lakes on Local Temperature and Precipitation in the Yellow River Source Region of the Tibetan Plateau. Advances in Meteorology.

Wen, L. J., N. Nagabhatla, L. Zhao, Z. G. Li, and S. Q. Chen, 2015: Impacts of salinity parameterizations on temperature simulation over and in a hypersaline lake. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 33, 790-801.

West, T. O., Y. Le Page, M. Y. Huang, J. Wolf, and A. M. Thomson, 2014: Downscaling global land cover projections from an integrated assessment model for use in regional analyses: results and evaluation for the US from 2005 to 2095. Environmental Research Letters, 9.

Whitfield, B., J. M. Jacobs, and J. Judge, 2006: Intercomparison study of the land surface process model and the common land model for a prairie wetland in Florida. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7, 1247-1258.

Wieder, W. R., J. Boehnert, and G. B. Bonan, 2014: Evaluating soil biogeochemistry parameterizations in Earth system models with observations. Global biogeochemical cycles, 28, 211-222.

Wieder, W. R., C. C. Cleveland, D. M. Lawrence, and G. B. Bonan, 2015: Effects of model structural uncertainty on carbon cycle projections: biological nitrogen fixation as a case study. Environmental Research Letters, 10.

Wieder, W. R., J. F. Knowles, P. D. Blanken, S. C. Swenson, and K. N. Suding, 2017: Ecosystem function in complex mountain terrain: Combining models and long-term observations to advance process-based understanding. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 122, 825-845.

Wilhelm, M., E. L. Davin, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2015: Climate engineering of vegetated land for hot extremes mitigation: An Earth system model sensitivity study. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120, 2612-2623.

Will, A., N. Akhtar, J. Brauch, M. Breil, E. Davin, H. T. M. Ho-Hagemann, E. Maisonnave, M. Thurkow, and S. Weiher, 2017: The COSMO-CLM 4.8 regional climate model coupled to regional ocean, land surface and global earth system models using OASIS3-MCT: description and performance. Geoscientific Model Development, 10, 1549-1586.

Williams, I. N., Y. Q. Lu, L. M. Kueppers, W. J. Riley, S. C. Biraud, J. E. Bagley, and M. S. Torn, 2016: Land-atmosphere coupling and climate prediction over the US Southern Great Plains. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 12125-12144.

Williamson, D. L., J. Boyle, R. Cederwall, M. Fiorino, J. Hnilo, J. Olson, T. Phillips, G. Potter, and S. C. Xie, 2005: Moisture and temperature balances at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site in forecasts with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM2). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 110.

Wu, W. R. and R. E. Dickinson, 2004: Time scales of layered soil moisture memory in the context of land-atmosphere interaction. Journal of Climate, 17, 2752-2764.

Wu, D. D., E. N. Anagnostou, G. L. Wang, S. Moges, and M. Zampieri, 2014: Improving the surface-ground water interactions in the Community Land Model: Case study in the Blue Nile Basin. Water Resources Research, 50, 8015-8033.

Wu, C. M., M. H. Lo, W. T. Chen, and C. T. Lu, 2015: The impacts of heterogeneous land surface fluxes on the diurnal cycle precipitation: A framework for improving the GCM representation of land-atmosphere interactions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120, 3714-3727.

Wu, C. L., Z. H. Lin, J. X. He, M. H. Zhang, X. H. Liu, R. J. Zhang, and H. Brown, 2016: A process-oriented evaluation of dust emission parameterizations in CESM: Simulation of a typical severe dust storm in East Asia. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8, 1432-1452.

Xia, Y. L., D. Mocko, M. Y. Huang, B. L. Li, M. Rodell, K. E. Mitchell, X. T. Cai, and M. B. Ek, 2017: Comparison and Assessment of Three Advanced Land Surface Models in Simulating Terrestrial Water Storage Components over the United States. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18, 625-649.

Xie, Z. H., L. Y. Wang, B. H. Jia, and X. Yuan, 2016: Measuring and modeling the impact of a severe drought on terrestrial ecosystem CO2 and water fluxes in a subtropical forest. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 121, 2576-2587.

Xie, Z. P., Z. Y. Hu, Z. H. Xie, B. H. Jia, G. H. Sun, Y. Z. Du, and H. Q. Song, 2018: Impact of the snow cover scheme on snow distribution and energy budget modeling over the Tibetan Plateau. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 131, 951-965.

Xin, Y. F., B. Y. Wu, L. G. Bian, G. Liu, L. Zhang, and R. Li, 2012: Response of the East Asian climate system to water and heat changes of global frozen soil using NCAR CAM model. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57, 4462-4471.

Xu, L. and P. Dirmeyer, 2011: Snow-atmosphere coupling strength in a global atmospheric model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L13401.

——, 2013: Snow-Atmosphere Coupling Strength. Part I: Effect of Model Biases. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14, 389-403.

Xu, X. F., D. A. Elias, D. E. Graham, T. J. Phelps, S. L. Carroll, S. D. Wullschleger, and P. E. Thornton, 2015: A microbial functional group-based module for simulating methane production and consumption: Application to an incubated permafrost soil. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 120, 1315-1333.

Xu, Z. F., R. Mahmood, Z. L. Yang, C. B. Fu, and H. Su, 2015: Investigating diurnal and seasonal climatic response to land use and land cover change over monsoon Asia with the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120, 1137-1152.

Xu, X. Y., W. J. Riley, C. D. Koven, D. P. Billesbach, R. Y. W. Chang, R. Commane, E. S. Euskirchen, S. Hartery, Y. Harazono, H. Iwata, K. C. McDonald, C. E. Miller, W. C. Oechel, B. Poulter, N. Raz-Yaseef, C. Sweeney, M. Torn, S. C. Wofsy, Z. Zhang, and D. Zona, 2016: A multi-scale comparison of modeled and observed seasonal methane emissions in northern wetlands. Biogeosciences, 13, 5043-5056.

Xu, Y., D. L. Wang, C. M. Iversen, A. Walker, and J. Warren, 2017: Building a Virtual Ecosystem Dynamic Model for Root Research. Environmental Modelling & Software, 89, 97-105.

Yan, B. Y. and R. E. Dickinson, 2014: Modeling hydraulic redistribution and ecosystem response to droughts over the Amazon basin using Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4). Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 119, 2130-2143.

Yan, M., J. Liu, and Z. Y. Wang, 2017: Global Climate Responses to Land Use and Land Cover Changes Over the Past Two Millennia. Atmosphere, 8.

Yang, Z. L., G. Y. Niu, and Q. R. Zeng, 2004: Impacts of fractional snow cover on surface air temperature in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (NCAR-CAM2). Engineering, Construction and Operations in Challenging Environments: Earth and Space 2004, R. B. Malla and A. Maji, Eds., 269-275.

Yang, X., P. E. Thornton, D. M. Ricciuto, and W. M. Post, 2014: The role of phosphorus dynamics in tropical forests - a modeling study using CLM-CNP. Biogeosciences, 11, 1667-1681.

Yang, Z. S., Q. Zhang, and X. C. Hao, 2016: Evapotranspiration Trend and Its Relationship with Precipitation over the Loess Plateau during the Last Three Decades. Advances in Meteorology.

Yang, Z. S., Q. Zhang, Y. Yang, X. C. Hao, and H. L. Zhang, 2016: Evaluation of evapotranspiration models over semi-arid and semi-humid areas of China. Hydrological Processes, 30, 4292-4313.

Yang, Q., M. X. Li, Z. Y. Zheng, and Z. G. Ma, 2017: Regional applicability of seven meteorological drought indices in China. Science China-Earth Sciences, 60, 745-760.

Ye, A. Z., Q. Y. Duan, C. S. Zhan, Z. F. Liu, and Y. N. Mao, 2013: Improving kinematic wave routing Land Model scheme in Community Land Model. Hydrology Research, 44, 886-903.

Yi, S. H., M. A. Arain, and M. K. Woo, 2006: Modifications of a land surface scheme for improved simulation of ground freeze-thaw in northern environments. Geophysical Research Letters, 33.

Yi, S. H., M. K. Woo, and M. A. Arain, 2007: Impacts of peat and vegetation on permafrost degradation under climate warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 34.

Ying, K. R., T. B. Zhao, X. G. Zheng, X. W. Quan, C. S. Frederiksen, and M. X. Li, 2016: Predictable signals in seasonal mean soil moisture simulated with observation-based atmospheric forcing over China. Climate Dynamics, 47, 2373-2395.

You, Y., M. Huber, R. D. Muller, C. J. Poulsen, and J. Ribbe, 2009: Simulation of the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. Geophysical Research Letters, 36.

You, Y., 2010: Climate-model evaluation of the contribution of sea-surface temperature and carbon dioxide to the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum as a possible analogue of future climate change. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57, 207-219.

Yu, Y., Z. H. Xie, and X. B. Zeng, 2014: Impacts of modified Richards equation on RegCM4 regional climate modeling over East Asia. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119, 12642-12659.

Yu, M., G. L. Wang, D. Parr, and K. F. Ahmed, 2014: Future changes of the terrestrial ecosystem based on a dynamic vegetation model driven with RCP8.5 climate projections from 19 GCMs. Climatic Change, 127, 257-271.

Yu, M., G. L. Wang, and H. S. Chen, 2016: Quantifying the impacts of land surface schemes and dynamic vegetation on the model dependency of projected changes in surface energy and water budgets. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8, 370-386.

Yuan, X. and X.-Z. Liang, 2011: Evaluation of a Conjunctive Surface-Subsurface Process Model (CSSP) over the Contiguous United States at Regional- Local Scales. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 12, 579-599.

Yuan, H., R. E. Dickinson, Y. Dai, M. J. Shaikh, L. Zhou, W. Shangguan, and D. Ji, 2013: A 3D Canopy Radiative Transfer Model for Global Climate Modeling: Description, Validation, and Application. Journal of Climate, 27, 1168-1192.

Yuan, H., R. E. Dickinson, Y. J. Dai, M. J. Shaikh, L. M. Zhou, S. G. Wei, and D. Y. Ji, 2014: A 3D Canopy Radiative Transfer Model for Global Climate Modeling: Description, Validation, and Application. Journal of Climate, 27, 1168-1192.

Yuan, H., Y. J. Dai, R. E. Dickinson, B. Pinty, S. G. Wei, S. P. Zhang, L. L. Wang, and S. G. Zhu, 2017: Reexamination and further development of two-stream canopy radiative transfer models for global land modeling. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 113-129.

Zampieri, M., E. Serpetzoglou, E. N. Anagnostou, E. I. Nikolopoulos, and A. Papadopoulos, 2012: Improving the representation of river-groundwater interactions in land surface modeling at the regional scale: Observational evidence and parameterization applied in the Community Land Model. Journal of Hydrology, 420, 72-86.

Zeng, X. B., M. Shaikh, Y. J. Dai, R. E. Dickinson, and R. Myneni, 2002: Coupling of the common land model to the NCAR community climate model. Journal of Climate, 15, 1832-1854.

Zeng, X. B., R. E. Dickinson, M. Barlage, Y. J. Dai, G. L. Wang, and K. Oleson, 2005: Treatment of undercanopy turbulence in land models. Journal of Climate, 18, 5086-5094.

Zeng, X. B. and A. H. Wang, 2007: Consistent parameterization of roughness length and displacement height for sparse and dense canopies in land models. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8, 730-737.

Zeng, X. D., X. B. Zeng, and M. Barlage, 2008: Growing temperate shrubs over arid and semiarid regions in the Community Land Model-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22.

Zeng, X. B. and M. Decker, 2009: Improving the Numerical Solution of Soil Moisture-Based Richards Equation for Land Models with a Deep or Shallow Water Table. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 10, 308-319.

Zeng, X. B., M. Barlage, C. Castro, and K. Fling, 2010: Comparison of Land-Precipitation Coupling Strength Using Observations and Models. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 11, 979-994.

Zeng, X. D., 2010: Evaluating the dependence of vegetation on climate in an improved dynamic global vegetation model. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 27, 977-991.

Zeng, X. B., Z. Wang, and A. H. Wang, 2012: Surface Skin Temperature and the Interplay between Sensible and Ground Heat Fluxes over Arid Regions. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13, 1359-1370.

Zeng, G., J. E. Williams, J. A. Fisher, L. K. Emmons, N. B. Jones, O. Morgenstern, J. Robinson, D. Smale, C. Paton-Walsh, and D. W. T. Griffith, 2015: Multi-model simulation of CO and HCHO in the Southern Hemisphere: comparison with observations and impact of biogenic emissions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 7217-7245.

Zeng, Y. J., Z. H. Xie, Y. Yu, S. Liu, L. Y. Wang, J. Zou, P. H. Qin, and B. H. Jia, 2016: Effects of anthropogenic water regulation and groundwater lateral flow on land processes. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 8, 1106-1131.

Zeng, Y. J., Z. H. Xie, and S. Liu, 2017: Seasonal effects of irrigation on land-atmosphere latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon fluxes in semiarid basin. Earth System Dynamics, 8, 113-127.

Zeng, Y. J., Z. H. Xie, and J. Zou, 2017: Hydrologic and Climatic Responses to Global Anthropogenic Groundwater Extraction. Journal of Climate, 30, 71-90.

Zhang, X. P., X. Y. Wang, Z. L. Yang, G. Y. Niu, and Z. C. Xie, 2009: Simulations of seasonal variations of stable water isotopes in land surface process model CLM. Chinese Science Bulletin, 54, 1765-1772.

Zhang, X. P., Z. L. Yang, G. Y. Niu, and X. Y. Wang, 2009: Stable water isotope simulation in different reservoirs of Manaus, Brazil, by Community Land Model incorporating stable isotopic effect. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 619-628.

Zhang, S. L., J. C. Shi, and Y. J. Dou, 2012: A soil moisture assimilation scheme based on the microwave Land Emissivity Model and the Community Land Model. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 33, 2770-2797.

Zhang, C., D. G. Wang, G. L. Wang, W. T. Yang, and X. P. Liu, 2014: Regional differences in hydrological response to canopy interception schemes in a land surface model. Hydrological Processes, 28, 2499-2508.

Zhang, Y. F., T. J. Hoar, Z. L. Yang, J. L. Anderson, A. M. Toure, and M. Rodell, 2014: Assimilation of MODIS snow cover through the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Community Land Model version 4. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119, 7091-7103.

Zhang, Q., L. Zhang, J. Huang, L. Y. Zhang, W. Y. Wang, and S. Sha, 2014: Spatial distribution of surface energy fluxes over the Loess Plateau in China and its relationship with climate and the environment. Science China-Earth Sciences, 57, 2135-2147.

Zhang, J., Z. Y. Liu, and L. Chen, 2015: Reduced Soil Moisture Contributes to More Intense and More Frequent Heat Waves in Northern China. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 32, 1197-1207.

Zhang, L., J. F. Mao, X. Y. Shi, D. Ricciuto, H. L. He, P. Thornton, G. R. Yu, P. Li, M. Liu, X. L. Ren, S. J. Han, Y. N. Li, J. H. Yan, Y. B. Hao, and H. M. Wang, 2016: Evaluation of the Community Land Model simulated carbon and water fluxes against observations over ChinaFLUX sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 226, 174-185.

Zhang, Y. F. and Z. L. Yang, 2016: Estimating uncertainties in the newly developed multi-source land snow data assimilation system. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121, 8254-8268.

Zhang, J. C., K. Zhang, J. F. Liu, and G. Ban-Weiss, 2016: Revisiting the climate impacts of cool roofs around the globe using an Earth system model. Environmental Research Letters, 11.

Zhang, H. J., H. J. H. Franssen, X. J. Han, J. A. Vrugt, and H. Vereecken, 2017: State and parameter estimation of two land surface models using the ensemble Kalman filter and the particle filter. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 21, 4927-4958.

Zhao, J. C. and S. H. Liu, 2015: Research on the impact of vegetation change on land-atmosphere coupling strength in northwest China. Chinese Journal of Geophysics-Chinese Edition, 58, 47-62.

Zhao, C., M. Y. Huang, J. D. Fast, L. K. Berg, Y. Qian, A. Guenther, D. S. Gu, M. Shrivastava, Y. Liu, S. Walters, G. Pfister, J. M. Jin, J. E. Shilling, and C. Warneke, 2016: Sensitivity of biogenic volatile organic compounds to land surface parameterizations and vegetation distributions in California. Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 1959-1976.

Zhao, L., Z. L. Yang, and T. J. Hoar, 2016: Global Soil Moisture Estimation by Assimilating AMSR-E Brightness Temperatures in a Coupled CLM4-RTM-DART System. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17, 2431-2454.

Zhao, Y. H., L. Zhang, A. P. K. Tai, Y. F. Chen, and Y. P. Pan, 2017: Responses of surface ozone air quality to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition in the Northern Hemisphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 9781-9796.

Zheng, Z. and G. Wang, 2007: Modeling the dynamic root water uptake and its hydrological impact at the Reserva Jaru site in Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 112.

Zheng, D. H., R. Van der Velde, Z. B. Su, J. Wen, M. J. Booij, A. Y. Hoekstra, and X. Wang, 2015: Under-canopy turbulence and root water uptake of a Tibetan meadow ecosystem modeled by Noah-MP. Water Resources Research, 51, 5735-5755.

Zheng, H., S. H. Liu, P. Clement, Z. X. Liu, X. H. Hou, S. Wang, J. C. Zhao, Y. Li, Y. C. Mia, Y. J. Zheng, L. Sheng, and L. Zhu, 2016: Description and evaluation of the Peking University Land Model (PKULM). Chinese Journal of Geophysics-Chinese Edition, 59, 79-92.

Zheng, Z. Y., Z. G. Ma, M. X. Li, and J. J. Xia, 2017: Regional water budgets and hydroclimatic trend variations in Xinjiang from 1951 to 2000. Climatic Change, 144, 447-460.

Zhou, L., R. E. Dickinson, Y. Tian, M. Jin, K. Ogawa, H. Yu, and T. Schmugge, 2003: A sensitivity study of climate and energy balance simulations with use of satellite-derived emissivity data over Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 108.

Zhou, L., R. E. Dickinson, Y. Tian, X. Zeng, Y. Dai, Z. L. Yang, C. B. Schaaf, F. Gao, Y. Jin, A. Strahler, R. B. Myneni, H. Yu, W. Wu, and M. Shaikh, 2003: Comparison of seasonal and spatial variations of albedos from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Common Land Model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 108.

Zhou, T. J., B. Wu, X. Y. Wen, L. J. Li, and B. Wang, 2008: A fast version of LASG/IAP climate system model and its 1000-year control integration. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 25, 655-672.

Zhou, L. M., R. Dickinson, P. Dirmeyer, H. S. Chen, Y. J. Dai, and Y. H. Tian, 2008: Asymmetric response of maximum and minimum temperatures to soil emissivity change over the Northern African Sahel in a GCM. Geophysical Research Letters, 35.

Zhu, P., Q. L. Zhuang, J. Eva, and C. Bernacchi, 2017: Importance of biophysical effects on climate warming mitigation potential of biofuel crops over the conterminous United States. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 9, 577-590.

Zou, J., Z. H. Xie, Y. Yu, C. S. Zhan, and Q. Sun, 2014: Climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation: a case study of the Haihe River Basin, Northern China. Climate Dynamics, 42, 2125-2145.

Zubler, E. M., U. Lohmann, D. Luthi, and C. Schar, 2011: Intercomparison of aerosol climatologies for use in a regional climate model over Europe. Geophysical Research Letters, 38.